Distribution patterns of Zoochlorellae and Zooxanthellae hosted by two Pacific Northeast anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima and A.
Biogeography and microhabitat variation in temperate algal-invertebrate symbioses: zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae in two Pacific intertidal sea anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima and A.
Analysis of the algae present in the tentacles and body column indicated that zoochlorellae (ZC) were only rarely hosted by Anthopleura elegantissima; zooxanthellae (ZX) were the dominant symbiont in tidepool and crevice habitats exposed to sunlight between the shore heights of 0.5 and 1.5 m (> 98% were brown; n = 147).
2004 Phylogenetic placement of "zoochlorellae" (Chlorophyta), algal symbiont of the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.
Studies have shown that zoochlorellae are maintained at higher densities and have higher maximum photosynthetic rates under conditions of low light and low temperature (Saunders and Muller-Parker, 1997; Engebretson and Muller-Parker, 1999), and that zooxanthellate individuals of A.
The purpose of this study was to examine how symbiont populations and the productivity of zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae isolated from A.
muscatinei and zoochlorellae with respect to photosynthesis and carbon translocation (Engebretson and Muller-Parker, 1999; Verde and McCloskey, 1996, 2001, 2002), occurrence of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (Shick et al., 2002), and predation on the anemone host (Seavy and Muller-Parker, 2002, and references therein).
As the most common algal symbionts in animals in freshwater associations (sponges, hydra) are members of the genus Chlorella (Reisser and Widowski, 1992), we were particularly interested in determining the phylogenetic relatedness of both freshwater and marine symbiotic green algae, universally called zoochlorellae. However, given the paraphyly of Chlorella (Huss and Sogin, 1990; Huss et al., 1999), the identity of green anemone symbionts is uncertain.
xanthogrammica north of Central California host two taxa of phototrophic endosymbionts: zoochlorellae, which are green Chiorellalike chlorophytes (Muscatine, 1971), and the dinofiagellate S.
1) because the anemones there harbor both zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae (Saunders and Muller-Parker, 1997).
The temperate sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Anthopleura xanthogrammica host both dinoflagellate zooxanthellae and green algae known only generally as zoochlorellae (Muscatine, 1971).
Previous studies have suggested that zoochlorellae do not translocate as much carbon as zooxanthellae.