Ohtaka-Maruyama et al., "Intracapsular organization of ciliary zonules
in monkey eyes," Anatomical Record, vol.
 reported one case with a 1.0 mm posterior capsule irregularity using 35 MHz UBM and emphasized that 35 MHz UBM was equipped with 70 [micro]m of axial-lateral resolution and penetration with a 7.0 to 8.0 mm probe and could provide more detailed evaluation of the zonule
and ciliary body because of its deeper penetration than 50 MHz UBM as well as higher resolution than 20 MHz B scans.
This redistributes tension from the weakened zonules
equally over the others.
Therefore, we adopt the direct phacochop technique to deal with the nucleus, which means that the nucleus is held firmly by the phaco tip, meanwhile the chopper tip hooks the equator of the nucleus and moves centripetally inward from the periphery to segment the nucleus.16 In this way, chopping applies much less force against the zonules
and capsule because the phaco tip secures the nucleus, and the manual instrument forces are directed centripetally against each other.
Apart from their physical proximity, another possible connection is the arrival of growing ciliary processes at the equator and formation of lens zonules
in the fourth month.
Identifying PXS is also significant for patients who require cataract surgery as the lens zonules
are weakened by this condition, increasing the risk of the lens dislocating into the vitreous during surgery, and also of a subluxated IOL after surgery (see Figure 4).
PXF has also been known to cause a weakening of lens zonules
leading to lens drop and other complications during cataract surgery.
With ciliochoroidal effusion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body, the iris-lens diaphragm moves forward, the zonules
relax, and the lens thickens, which results in myopic shift and narrowing or closure of the anterior chamber angle [1,4].
Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) results from posterior bowing of the iris and rubbing between the lens zonules
and epithelial layer of the iris, and usually affects myopic eyes in men during the third to fourth decade of life.[sup],,,,,,,,,, The literature indicated that Caucasians have the highest prevalence of PDS among all races,[sup] with clinical characteristics including Krukenberg spindle, homogeneous trabecular meshwork (TM) pigmentation, and spoke-like mid-peripheral iris transillumination defects (ITDs), which are referred as a triad of PDS.
Part 5, on primary IOL implantation with compromised capsules, contains three subsections on recommendations for broken capsule with intact zonules
, compromised zonules
and/or lack of capsular support, and managing iris abnormalities combined with IOL fixation.
According to the pamphlet, "The abnormal protein seen in this condition settles and weakens the lens zonules
, which are suspensory fibers that hold the lens in place.
"The ciliary body has three functions: accommodation, aqueous humor production and maintenance of the lens zonules
. Our studies have shown astaxanthin to improve focus rates in patients suffering with CVS [Computer Vision Syndrome] symptoms." In other studies, she said astaxanthin was shown to improve ROS [Reactive oxygen species] scavenging activity in the aqueous humor, thus supporting the delivery of oxygen to the lens.