Short-term oral toxicity of homoyessotoxins, yessotoxin
and okadaic acid in mice.
binds to voltage-gated calcium/sodium channels, also resulting in increased cytosolic [Ca.sup.2+] (de la Rosa et al.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1, and other lipophilic toxins such as pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and yessotoxin
were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Five groups of marine biotoxins are regulated within the European Union, i.e., okadaic acid group (OA), also known as the diarrheic shellfish poisons (DSPs), which includes the dinophysistoxin analogues (DTXs); azaspiracid group (AZAs), which can also cause diarrhoea; yessotoxin
group (YTXs); domoic acid group (DA), also known as amnesic shellfish poisons (ASPs); and saxitoxin group (STXs), also known as paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) (EFSA, 2009).
Protoceratium reticulatum has been confirmed as a yessotoxin
(YTX) producer (Pizarro et al., 2012a), however for Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera, both species producers of YTX in other parts of the world (e.g., Paz et al., 2004; Rhodes et al., 2006), and observed in Aysen waters, the information of their toxin profiles remains unknown for southern Chile.
Evaluation of California isolates of Lingulodinium polyedrum for the production of yessotoxin
. African Journal of Marine Science, 28(5), 399-401.
Comparison of oral and intraperitoneal toxicity of yessotoxin
Toxins can be lipophilic such as the okadaic acid (OA) group, the azaspiracid (AZA) group, the yessotoxin
(YTX) group, and the pectenotoxin (PTX) group, which are usually extracted from biological samples with 100% or 80% methanol [7, 49, 56], or can be polar such as domoic acid (DA), usually extracted with water and methanol in various proportions [50, 57, 58].
Coslovich et al., "In vitro effects of yessotoxin
on a primary culture of rat cardiomyocytes," Toxicological Sciences, vol.
International collaborations with IMB to investigate human toxicity incidents include groups in Australia (new pectenotoxins), Ireland (azaspiracids, DSP), Japan (DSP, pectenotoxins), Portugal (ASP, DSP, pectenotoxins), Spain (DSP, PSP), Taiwan (DSP, PSP, microcystins), UK (ASP), USA (ASP), and New Zealand (gymnodimine, yessotoxin
, brevetoxins, DSP).
Other lipophilic toxins measured in shellfish were yessotoxin
, pectenotoxin-2 (PTX- 2), and azaspiracid-2; the last two toxins observed in Russian water for the first time.
ABSTRACT The presence of the lipophilic toxins okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1, pectenotoxin-2, and yessotoxin
(YTX) in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected between March 2009 and May 2010 was analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the mouse bioassay.