The subcellular distribution of ChREBP between the nucleus and cytosol is controlled by different metabolites including xylulose
5-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 2,6-biphosphate and ketone bodies (Nakagawa et al., 2013).
 The absorbed xylitol, on the other hand, is phosphorylated and metabolized in the liver to xylulose
5-phosphate, an intermediate branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, which connects the pathway of xylitol to glucose and cholesterol.
No relevant functional pathway was associated to these proteins, even though DF-specific factors appeared to be involved in sugar metabolism (monosaccharide biosynthetic process--FDR: 3.47e-05, xylulose
biosynthetic process--FDR: 0.00461, and nonoxidative branch of pentose-phosphate shunt--FDR: 0.023).
The pentose phosphate metabolites, ribulose 5-phosphate and xylulose
5-phosphate (p = 0.001, ANOVA), were elevated in the more aggressive HER2-enriched molecular subtype (p = 0.002 luminal A versus HER2-enriched).
Glucose isomerase, also known as D-glucose isomerase and D-xylose isomerase, is the intracellular enzyme which catalyzes the isomerization of glucose to fructose and xylose to xylulose
; therefore, it accelerates the sweetness of food product and plays an important role is HFCS production.
Bacteria can directly convert xylose to xylulose
with xylose isomerase.
Regulation of ascorbic acid and of xylulose
synthesis in rat-liver extracts.
5-phosphate mediates glucose-induced lipogenesis by xylulose
5-phosphate-activated protein phosphatase in rat liver," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
In contrast to the mosquito strains, which possessed genes encoding for xylose isomerase (XylA) and xylulose
kinase (XylB), these 2 genes were absent in the 3 strains we identified.
The mechanisms of vinegar's effect on peripheral tissues have been studied in animals; these studies demonstrate that acetic acid feeding reduces glycolysis and promotes glycogen synthesis, probably by reducing xylulose
5-phosphate accumulation in the liver and phosphofructokinase-1 activity in muscle [14-16].
Isomerization of xylose to xylulose
has been used to solve such challenge.
Another portion of formaldehyde is condensed with xylulose
5-phosphate by the third peroxisome enzyme--dihydroxyacetone synthase (Dhas EC 188.8.131.52) resulting in generation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone.