As a control, we performed a growth curve for A, baumannii 34702 and K, pneumoniae 28296 with glucose or xylose
as the sole carbon source to determine the bacterial growth rate.
Mutagenized conidia were grown in the Eggin's and Pugh medium with 2% xylose
and 0.5% (w/v) 2DG.
Subsequently, 2 mL aliquots of this suspension were transferred to erlenmeyer flasks containing 100 mL of the culture medium with 30 g [L.sup.-1] of xylose
, 2 g [L.sup.-1] of ammonium sulfate, 0.1 g [L.sup.-1] of calcium chloride and 20 g [L.sup.-1] of rice bran extract (obtained from heating in autoclave at 111[degrees]C-0.5 atm for 15 min with later centrifugation for 30 min under aseptic conditions at 2000 x g, subsequently using only the supernatant as rice bran extract solution) employed in the study of Lima et al.
Slininger, Gorsich and Liu (2009) observed that in a medium containing xylose
, as the only carbon source, there was an increase in yeast resistance to furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural exposure.
pastoris does not harbour pentose utilization enzymes needed for fermentation of xylose
; [X.sub.2], xylobiose; [X.sub.3], xylotriose; [X.sub.4], xylotetraose; [X.sub.5], xylopentaose; [X.sub.6], xylohexaose; Std, molecular weight standard mix of [X.sub.1] to [X.sub.6]; pNP-X, 4-nitrophenyl-[beta]-D- xylopyranoside.
Arabinose to xylose
ratio is a measure of degree of substitution (DS).
Here, CB further degraded the intermediate product of CBH and EG hydrolysate (cellobiose) and further formed monosaccharide (glucose and xylose
), which helped to decrease the feedback inhibition of reaction kinetics.
The reference compounds of L-rhamnose monohydrate (BCBL0552V, 98%) and xylose
(WXBB5741V, 98%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd., and D-mannose (LOTD1429046, 98%) and 3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one (PMP, 99%) were from Aladdin Co., Ltd., and glucose (LOT110833-201205,98%) and galactose (LOT100226-201105, 98%) were purchased from the National Institute for Food and Drug control (Beijing, China).
In these analyses, the following dependent variables were considered: total sugars (TS), reducing sugars (RS), degree of polymerization (DP), glucose (GLUC), fructose (FRUC), xylose
(XIL), sucrose (SUC), furfural (F), and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF).