The habitats of Brassicales are mostly xeric in some way or to some degree, and in this respect, the order is ideal as a template for identifying which features are most indicative for wood xeromorphy
, and which seem to be most effective in prevention of cavitation or in restoring the integrity of water columns once embolisms have fonned.
Soil phosphate and its role in molding the Australian flora and vegetation, with special reference to xeromorphy
They are adapted to the drought by their xeromorphy
and by various different physiological mechanisms.
Soil phosphate and its role in molding segments of the Australian flora and vegetation, with special reference to xeromorphy
A number of fertilization experiments have found that increased resource availability caused a decline in xeromorphy
and in nutrient-use efficiency (e.g., Beadle 1967, Shaver and Melillo 1984, Lajtha and Klein 1988, Chapin and Shaver 1989, Lajtha and Whitford 1989, Feller 1995, 1996, Madeira et al.
In the perennial or shrubby species, wood xeromorphy
is evident in the narrowness of vessels and in the short vessel element length.
Studies that have contrasted xeric species with species from nutrient-poor habitats suggest that the anatomical and physiological attributes associated with xeromorphy
may have arisen via convergent or parallel evolution in response to a complex of environmental stresses (Givnish 1978, 1979, Connor and Doley 1981, Lamont and Kelly 1988, Stock 1988, Witkowski and Lamont 1991).
-- 1998 Fossil evidence for the onset of xeromorphy
and scleromorphy in Australian Proteaceae.
Similarly, both surfaces of cotton cotyledons typically have twice the number of stomata as true leaves, establishing a general trend toward increasing xeromorphy
at successively higher nodes (Hayward 1938, Esau 1960).
Trends in specific leaf area (SLA) can be viewed in terms of the adaptive value that xeromorphy
brings to trees exposed to water or salinity stress.
It is well known that Proteaceae are very strongly associated with soils deficient in nutrients, especially phosphorous, and many taxa, including those of rainforests exhibit sclerophylly and xeromorphy
Soil phosphate and its role in molding segments of the Australian flora and vegetation with special reference to xeromorphy