xeroderma pigmentosum


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

xeroderma

 [ze″ro-der´mah]
excessive dryness of the skin, a mild form of ichthyosis.
xeroderma pigmento´sum a rare and often fatal pigmentary and atrophic disease in which the skin and eyes are extremely sensitive to light. It begins in childhood and progresses to early development of excessive freckling, telangiectases, keratoses, papillomas, carcinoma, and melanoma. Ocular symptoms include photophobia, opacities, and tumors. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait involving a defect in the enzymes active in the repair of DNA damaged by ultraviolet irradiation. Subtypes of this disorder have been identified by the capacity for DNA repair. Total protection from sunlight prevents the development of lesions.

xe·ro·der·ma pig·men·to·'sum

[MIM*278700]
an eruption of exposed skin occurring in childhood and characterized by photosensitivity with severe sunburn in infancy and the development of numerous pigmented spots resembling freckles, larger atrophic lesions eventually resulting in glossy white thinning of the skin surrounded by telangiectases, and multiple solar keratoses that undergo malignant change at an early age; results from several rare autosomal recessive complementation groups in which DNA repair processes are defective, so that they are more liable to chromosome breaks and cancerous change when exposed to ultraviolet light. Severe ophthalmic and neurologic abnormalities are also found.
See also: De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome.

xeroderma pigmentosum

(pĭg′mən-tō′səm)
n.
A rare hereditary skin disorder caused by a defect in the enzymes that repair DNA damaged by ultraviolet light.

xe·ro·der·ma pig·men·to·sum

(zērō-dĕrmă pigmen-tōsŭm)
An eruption of exposed skin occurring in childhood and characterized by photosensitivity with severe sunburn in infancy and the development of numerous pigmented spots resembling freckles, larger atrophic lesions eventually resulting in glossy white thinning of the skin surrounded by telangiectases, and multiple solar keratoses that undergo malignant change at an early age. Severe ophthalmic and neurologic abnormalities are also found.

xeroderma pigmentosum

A group of rare AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE genetic skin diseases featuring excessive sensitivity to sunlight, which causes premature ageing of the skin, PIGMENTATION and the development of skin cancers. Victims are condemned to an almost wholly indoor existence and have to use protective coverings and skin sunscreen creams out of doors.

xeroderma pigmentosum

a lethal genetical disorder of the skin in which affected individuals exhibit unusually heavy freckling and ulceration of the skin that has been exposed to sunlight. Such individuals lack an endonuclease enzyme that normally repairs thymine DIMERS produced in DNA by ultraviolet light. Affected individuals are thought to be homozygous for a pair of recessive alleles on an AUTOSOME, although there may be up to five different genes involved in the condition. Heterozygous individuals are often heavily freckled. There is no treatment and death usually occurs in childhood.

xeroderma pigmentosum 

An autosomal recessive inherited disease in which there is progressive pigmentary degeneration of the skin, especially in sun-exposed areas. It results from a deficient enzyme used in the repair of DNA damaged by ultraviolet light. The condition begins in infancy and is characterized by the appearance of numerous pigmented spots resembling freckles and telangiectases. Eventually atrophic patches appear as well as wart-like excrescence and often squamous cell carcinoma. Patients are photophobic and the eyelids are frequently affected with atrophy and ectropion, which may be accompanied with conjunctival inflammation and corneal ulceration. Protection of the eyes and skin is essential as well as surgical removal of the carcinomatous tumours, but many patients eventually succumb to metastases.

xe·ro·der·ma pig·men·to·sum

(zērō-dĕrmă pigmen-tōsŭm) [MIM*278700]
Eruption of exposed skin occurring in childhood and characterized by photosensitivity with severe sunburn in infancy and the development of numerous pigmented spots resembling freckles, larger atrophic lesions eventually resulting in glossy white thinning of the skin surrounded by telangiectases, and multiple solar keratoses that undergo malignant change at an early age.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cockayne syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum DNA repair disorders with overlaps and paradoxes.
SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; 8-oxodG: 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; hOGG1: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase; PARP: poly-ADP ribose polymerase; XRCC1: X- ray repair cross-complementing protein 1; ANAs: antinuclear antibodies: Pol polymerase beta; CPDs: pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers; 6-4 PPs: 6-4-pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts; UV: ultraviolet radiation; XPA: xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A; XPC: xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C; XPE: Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E; DDB1 DNA damagebinding protein 1.
Defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system cause rare entities including Xeroderma Pigmentosum, De Sanctis-Cacchione, Cockayne syndrome, and Trichothiodystrophy, which have higher incidence in areas with high levels of consanguinity.
Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive condition that is characterized by marked photosensitivity with the development of hyperpigmented and hypopigmented lesions, atrophy, xerosis (dry skin), telangiectasia (dilated vessels), and actinic keratoses, especially on sunexposed skin.
In humans, point mutations in XPD produce three different diseases: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome with XP (XP/CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTC) [42].
Detailed history with recording of various patient variables like age, gender, duration of symptoms, Fitzpatrick skin phototype, skin color, average daily sun exposure (hours/day), occupation, residence place (rural or urban), exposure to chemicals including pesticides, radiation exposure history, treatment with psoralen UVA (PUVA) or narrow band UVB (NBUVB), smoking, alcohol intake, history of personal or family history of skin cancers, personal or family history of other cancers, history of genetic disorder like xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism, and history of previous treatment.
Xeroderma pigmentosum. Cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic abnormalities in 830 published cases.
Dorey and Yolanda Nez are a married Navajo couple who bear an unjust burden: their daughter (Leanndra, 16) and her younger brother (who passed away at age 11) were both born with Xeroderma Pigmentosum, also known as XP.
Allie Kim and her two best friends, Rob and Juliet, all suffer from xeroderma pigmentosum, a fatal allergy to sunlight.
Both albinism and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are very common in this part of East Africa.
"The Dark Side of the Sun" is an English-language docu with manga-like animation segments about Camp Sundown, in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., that caters to children with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare genetic disease that causes severe sun-sensitivity disorders.

Full browser ?