xenobiotic


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xenobiotic

 [ze″no-bi-ot´ik]
a chemical compound foreign to a given biological system. With respect to animals and humans, xenobiotics include drugs, drug metabolites, and environmental compounds such as pollutants that are not produced by the body. In the environment, xenobiotics include synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and industrial pollutants that would not be found in nature.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

xen·o·bi·ot·ic

(zen'ō-bī-ot'ik),
1. A pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore foreign to an organism.
2. Pertaining to association of two animal species, usually insects, in the absence of a dependency relationship, as opposed to parasitism.
[xeno- + G. bios, life + -ic]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

xenobiotic

(zĕn′ə-bī-ŏt′ĭk, zē′nə-)
adj.
Not a natural component of a particular organism or biological system. Used of chemical compounds.
n.
A xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

xen·o·bi·ot·ic

(zen'ō-bī-ot'ik)
A pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore foreign to an organism.
[xeno- + G. bios, life + -ic]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

xenobiotic

a chemically synthesized compound that is found in the natural environment, but that does not normally occur in nature. Examples include pesticides, dyes, industrial pollutants. Such compounds may be structurally related to natural compounds and may be degraded slowly by the ENZYMES that degrade the natural counterparts. Others may be structurally unrelated to any known natural compound and their degradation occurs very slowly if at all. Xenobiotics generally persist in environments where microorganisms capable of their degradation do not naturally occur.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

xen·o·bi·ot·ic

(zen'ō-bī-ot'ik)
Pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore foreign to an organism.
[xeno- + G. bios, life + -ic]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
The development of ALL includes both genetic and environmental factors with DNA damage in hematopoietic precursor cells being a crucial step.6 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental toxins and chemical carcinogens result in DNA damage.7 Being substrates of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, the xenobiotics influence their carcinogenic effect depending on a person's ability to activate or inactivate them by conjugation and detoxification of these compounds.8 Variation in genes that encode carcinogen metabolizing enzymes may therefore explain the differences between the individual's capacity to metabolize different chemical carcinogens and have thus received a considerable level of attention with respect to cancer development.
Based on the outcome of these studies, specific aspects of xenobiotic metabolism in ruminants may arise: 1) Are the observed metabolites ruminant-specific and formed directly in the rumen?
Therefore, despite less transcriptional regulation of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the liver, WT females appeared to efficiently metabolize these three pesticides, suggesting that the metabolism of pesticides did not only occur in the liver.
In 1991, a group of scientists were brought together for a Wingspread conference to discuss whether xenobiotics, non-biological chemicals found in people and animals, disrupt the endocrine system.
Overexpression of the drug and xenobiotic metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes for a long time has been considered as one of the major mechanisms of chemoresistance in solid tumours [88, 89].
Vadhan-Raj et al., "Overexpression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein: implications of xenobiotic induced damage in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBF[beta]-MYH11," International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol.
Living cells are exposed to many intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic factors like xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
CY3A4 is the most important drug or xenobiotic metabolising enzyme that plays a key role in the biotransformation of foreign compounds, which are introduced into the body for specific reasons [1].
It can nonspecifically oxidize a variety of phenolic and non- phenolic substances including lignin and various other xenobiotic pollutants [6].Many researchers focused on producing the enzyme using biotechnology due to its important degradative potential [7].
Identifying and removing xenobiotic substances and exposures that may challenge iron binding, transport, and utilization.
The orphan nuclear receptor NR1I3 is mostly known for its effect in endo- and xenobiotic metabolism, typically by regulating expression of specific genes in the liver and other organs (13).