xanthoma

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Related to xanthomata: xanthelasma, malar flush

xanthoma

 [zan-tho´mah]
a papule, nodule, or plaque in the skin due to lipid deposits; it is usually yellow, but may be brown, reddish, or cream colored. Microscopically, the lesions show light cells with foamy protoplasm (foam cells). Xanthomas range in size from tiny pinheads to large nodules, and the shape may be round, flat, or irregular. They are often found around the eyes, the joints, the neck or the palms, or over tendons. Often these lipid deposits are not limited to the skin but are found throughout the body in bones, the heart, blood vessels, liver, and other organs.



The formation of xanthomas may indicate an underlying disease, usually related to abnormal metabolism of lipids, including cholesterol. Abnormally high levels of blood lipids may be found in diabetes mellitus (xanthoma diabeticorum), in diseases of the liver, kidney, and thyroid gland, and in several hereditary metabolic diseases. The excessive lipids carried in the blood may then be deposited as xanthomas. Treatment includes surgery, application of acids directly to the lipid deposits, and management of the disease that causes them.
Legs of a person homozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia, showing multiple xanthomas. From Mueller and Young, 2001.
diabetic xanthoma an eruptive xanthoma associated with diabetes mellitus; when the diabetes is brought under control, the skin lesions disappear.

xan·tho·ma

(zan-thō'mă),
A yellow nodule or plaque, especially of the skin, composed of lipid-laden histiocytes.
[G. xantho-, blond + G. -oma, tumor]

xanthoma

/xan·tho·ma/ (zan-tho´mah) a tumor composed of lipid-laden foam cells, which are histiocytes containing cytoplasmic lipid material.
diabetic xanthoma , xanthoma diabetico´rum eruptive x.
disseminated xanthoma , xanthoma dissemina´tum a rare, normolipoproteinemic form manifested by the development of reddish yellow to brown papules and nodules that may coalesce to form plaques, chiefly involving flexural ureases, the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract, cornea, sclera, and central nervous system.
eruptive xanthoma , xanthoma erupti´vum a form marked by sudden eruption of crops of small, yellow or yellowish orange papules encircled by an erythematous halo, especially on the buttocks, posterior thighs, and elbows, and caused by high concentrations of plasma triglycerides, especially that associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
fibrous xanthoma  benign fibrous histiocytoma.
xanthoma mul´tiplex  disseminated x.
planar xanthoma , plane xanthoma, xanthoma pla´num a form manifested as soft yellowish, tannish, or dark red flat macules or slightly elevated plaques, sometimes having a central white area, which may be localized or generalized, often occurring in association with other xanthomas and certain hyperlipoproteinemias.
xanthoma tendino´sum , tendinous xanthoma a form manifested by free movable papules or nodules in the tendons, ligaments, fascia, and periosteum, especially on the backs of the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, and heels, in association with some hyperlipoproteinemias and certain other xanthomas.
xanthoma tubero´sum , tuberous xanthoma a form manifested by groups of flat, or elevated and rounded, yellowish or orangish nodules on the skin over joints, especially on elbows and knees; it may be associated with certain types of hyperlipoproteinemia, biliary cirrhosis, and myxedema.

xanthoma

(zăn-thō′mə)
n. pl. xantho·mas or xantho·mata (-mə-tə)
A yellowish-orange, lipid-filled nodule or papule in the skin, often on an eyelid or over a joint.

xan·thom′a·tous (-thŏm′ə-təs) adj.

xanthoma

[zanthō′mə] pl. xanthomas, xanthomata
Etymology: Gk, xanthos + oma, tumor
a benign fatty fibrous yellowish plaque, nodule, or tumor that develops in the subcutaneous layer of skin, often around tendons. The lesion is characterized by the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and cholesterol esters. It is associated with high cholesterol and/or triglycerides.

xanthoma

Fatty skin growth Dermatology A yellow-orange lipid-filled papule or plaque located on the skin or tendons, which is common in the general population and Pts with DM, and may be ↑ in various 'lipid disorders–eg, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia

xan·tho·ma

(zan-thō'mă)
A yellow nodule or plaque, especially of the skin, composed of lipid-laden histiocytes.
[G. xantho-, blond + G. -oma, tumor]

xanthoma

A yellowish or orange mass of fat-filled cells occurring in the skin of people with various disorders of fat metabolism. Also known as generalized XANTHELASMA.

xanthelasma 

A cutaneous deposition of lipid material that appears in the skin of the eyelids, most commonly near the inner canthi. It appears as a yellowish, slightly elevated area. It is a benign and chronic condition that occurs primarily in the elderly. It may be associated with raised blood cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, leading to heart disease or diabetes. Syn. xanthoma; xanthelasma palpebrarum; xanthoma palpebrarum. See corneal arcus; Hollenhorst's plaque.

xan·tho·ma

(zan-thō'mă)
Yellow nodule or plaque, especially dermatologic, composed of lipid-laden histiocytes.
[G. xantho-, blond + G. -oma, tumor]

xanthoma

a papule, nodule or plaque in the skin due to lipid deposits; the color of a xanthoma is usually yellow, but may be brown, reddish, or cream. Microscopically, the lesions show light cells with foamy protoplasm (foam cells, xanthoma cells). They occur most commonly in White Leghorn chickens and rarely in other species.
The formation of xanthomas may indicate an underlying disease, usually related to abnormal metabolism of lipids, including cholesterol. In reptiles they are associated with high cholesterol diets.
References in periodicals archive ?
Routinely palpating the Achilles tendons ensures that xanthomata are not missed and also gives one a good appreciation of the range of normality.
On physical examination, eruptive xanthomata are frequently present (Fig.
Sixteen patients attended the clinic for the first time because of an attack of pancreatitis, 2 children presented with eruptive xanthomata, 1 male infant was diagnosed after death, 1 woman had incidentally discovered hypertriglyceridaemia, 1 boy was diagnosed following a stroke that was attributed to hypertriglyceridaemia, and 8 patients were diagnosed by family screening.
Eruptive xanthomata often precede the abdominal pain, but are an unreliable clinical sign for the diagnosis of LPL deficiency.
The homozygous FH phenotype produces cutaneous and tendinous xanthomata before adolescence, LDL cholesterol >14 mmol/l, very premature coronary disease, and aortic stenosis.
Tendon xanthomata was present in almost 90% of patients by the age of 50 years.
1) The heterozygous phenotype is characterised by a personal or family history of premature ischaemic heart disease, tendon xanthomata and elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels (5-12 mmol/l).
The proband was identified based on the presence of severe hypercholesterolemia and the presence of tendon xanthomata in accordance with established diagnostic criteria (8).
48 Tendon xanthomata No No No No CAD No No No No Mutation analysis FDB FH None None II-4 II-5 III-1 III-2 Age, years 43 32 15 14 Sex F M M M Total cholesterol, mmol/L 11.