xanthoma

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xanthoma

 [zan-tho´mah]
a papule, nodule, or plaque in the skin due to lipid deposits; it is usually yellow, but may be brown, reddish, or cream colored. Microscopically, the lesions show light cells with foamy protoplasm (foam cells). Xanthomas range in size from tiny pinheads to large nodules, and the shape may be round, flat, or irregular. They are often found around the eyes, the joints, the neck or the palms, or over tendons. Often these lipid deposits are not limited to the skin but are found throughout the body in bones, the heart, blood vessels, liver, and other organs.



The formation of xanthomas may indicate an underlying disease, usually related to abnormal metabolism of lipids, including cholesterol. Abnormally high levels of blood lipids may be found in diabetes mellitus (xanthoma diabeticorum), in diseases of the liver, kidney, and thyroid gland, and in several hereditary metabolic diseases. The excessive lipids carried in the blood may then be deposited as xanthomas. Treatment includes surgery, application of acids directly to the lipid deposits, and management of the disease that causes them.
Legs of a person homozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia, showing multiple xanthomas. From Mueller and Young, 2001.
diabetic xanthoma an eruptive xanthoma associated with diabetes mellitus; when the diabetes is brought under control, the skin lesions disappear.

xan·tho·ma

(zan-thō'mă),
A yellow nodule or plaque, especially of the skin, composed of lipid-laden histiocytes.
[G. xantho-, blond + G. -oma, tumor]

xanthoma

/xan·tho·ma/ (zan-tho´mah) a tumor composed of lipid-laden foam cells, which are histiocytes containing cytoplasmic lipid material.
diabetic xanthoma , xanthoma diabetico´rum eruptive x.
disseminated xanthoma , xanthoma dissemina´tum a rare, normolipoproteinemic form manifested by the development of reddish yellow to brown papules and nodules that may coalesce to form plaques, chiefly involving flexural ureases, the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract, cornea, sclera, and central nervous system.
eruptive xanthoma , xanthoma erupti´vum a form marked by sudden eruption of crops of small, yellow or yellowish orange papules encircled by an erythematous halo, especially on the buttocks, posterior thighs, and elbows, and caused by high concentrations of plasma triglycerides, especially that associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
fibrous xanthoma  benign fibrous histiocytoma.
xanthoma mul´tiplex  disseminated x.
planar xanthoma , plane xanthoma, xanthoma pla´num a form manifested as soft yellowish, tannish, or dark red flat macules or slightly elevated plaques, sometimes having a central white area, which may be localized or generalized, often occurring in association with other xanthomas and certain hyperlipoproteinemias.
xanthoma tendino´sum , tendinous xanthoma a form manifested by free movable papules or nodules in the tendons, ligaments, fascia, and periosteum, especially on the backs of the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, and heels, in association with some hyperlipoproteinemias and certain other xanthomas.
xanthoma tubero´sum , tuberous xanthoma a form manifested by groups of flat, or elevated and rounded, yellowish or orangish nodules on the skin over joints, especially on elbows and knees; it may be associated with certain types of hyperlipoproteinemia, biliary cirrhosis, and myxedema.

xanthoma

(zăn-thō′mə)
n. pl. xantho·mas or xantho·mata (-mə-tə)
A yellowish-orange, lipid-filled nodule or papule in the skin, often on an eyelid or over a joint.

xan·thom′a·tous (-thŏm′ə-təs) adj.

xanthoma

[zanthō′mə] pl. xanthomas, xanthomata
Etymology: Gk, xanthos + oma, tumor
a benign fatty fibrous yellowish plaque, nodule, or tumor that develops in the subcutaneous layer of skin, often around tendons. The lesion is characterized by the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and cholesterol esters. It is associated with high cholesterol and/or triglycerides.

xanthoma

Fatty skin growth Dermatology A yellow-orange lipid-filled papule or plaque located on the skin or tendons, which is common in the general population and Pts with DM, and may be ↑ in various 'lipid disorders–eg, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia

xan·tho·ma

(zan-thō'mă)
A yellow nodule or plaque, especially of the skin, composed of lipid-laden histiocytes.
[G. xantho-, blond + G. -oma, tumor]

xanthoma

A yellowish or orange mass of fat-filled cells occurring in the skin of people with various disorders of fat metabolism. Also known as generalized XANTHELASMA.

xanthelasma 

A cutaneous deposition of lipid material that appears in the skin of the eyelids, most commonly near the inner canthi. It appears as a yellowish, slightly elevated area. It is a benign and chronic condition that occurs primarily in the elderly. It may be associated with raised blood cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, leading to heart disease or diabetes. Syn. xanthoma; xanthelasma palpebrarum; xanthoma palpebrarum. See corneal arcus; Hollenhorst's plaque.

xan·tho·ma

(zan-thō'mă)
Yellow nodule or plaque, especially dermatologic, composed of lipid-laden histiocytes.
[G. xantho-, blond + G. -oma, tumor]

xanthoma

a papule, nodule or plaque in the skin due to lipid deposits; the color of a xanthoma is usually yellow, but may be brown, reddish, or cream. Microscopically, the lesions show light cells with foamy protoplasm (foam cells, xanthoma cells). They occur most commonly in White Leghorn chickens and rarely in other species.
The formation of xanthomas may indicate an underlying disease, usually related to abnormal metabolism of lipids, including cholesterol. In reptiles they are associated with high cholesterol diets.
References in periodicals archive ?
Elisaf, "Pathogenesis, detection and treatment of Achilles tendon xanthomas," European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
Tendon xanthomas are highly specific for FH in subjects with genetic high LDL cholesterol, and are an important diagnostic criterion.
Data on the frequency of gastrointestinal xanthomas and the linkage with the more frequent manifestation in a particular sex are significantly different in the literature [2, 6].
Surprisingly, we did not observed xanthomas in our patients; either tendon xanthomas are not being well diagnosed in Pakistan or Pakistani FH patients are less susceptible to the development of tendon xanthomas for some environmental reasons.
Diagnosis criteria for ADH probands followed the MEDPED guidelines: high plasma levels of total and LDL-cholesterol (total cholesterol (TC) > 250mg/dl and LDL-cholesterol (LDLc) > 190mg/dl), family history of hypercholesterolemia, presence of xanthomas (tendom, planar, and/or tuberous), and personal and/or family history of premature cardiovascular heart disease (CHD).
2) Pathologically, GCT of the tendon sheath is a highly vascular mass with an admixture of multinucleated giant cells, hemosiderin deposits, macrophages, fibroblasts and xanthoma cells: the same histologic features as PVNS.
These patients also present with eruptive xanthomas, lipemia retinalis, and pancreatitis but this disorder is usually not expressed in childhood.
Xane Xeroxed Xebec Xylography, Xanthippe, Xerxes, Xerography, Xenarthra, Xanthomas, X-Rays, Xanthosomas, Ximenez, Xytopyrography .
Xanthomas may be a symptom of underlying metabolic disorders including diabetes, primary biliary cirrhosis and hypothyroidism.
Characteristic cholesterol deposits called tendon xanthomas are seen deep in the tendons of the dorsum of the hand or knuckles, and the Achilles tendon, often by age 20.
In FH patients, xanthomas and an arcus lipoides are often seen upon physical examination.