This mutation is commonly found in other gliomas, such as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
, and gangliogliomas (55).
PCR detection of JC virus DNA in the brain tissue of a 9-year-old child with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
. J Neurovirol.
BRAF V600E is present in a wide range of brain tumors, including ganglioglioma (~30%), pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
(~40%), and epithelioid GBM (~50%), and is mutually exclusive with BRAF fusions.
Background and Objective: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
(PXA) is a rare primary WHO Grade II astrocytic tumor comprising of 5% in five tumors.
The morphologic features, in consideration of immunophenotype, are diagnostic of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
(WHO grade III).
As such, key histologic differential diagnostic considerations in this scenario shifted to metastasis, anaplastic xanthoastrocytoma
(WHO grade III), giant cell glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), and epithelioid glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
(PXAs) are superficially located tumours adjacent to the leptomeninges with an enhancing mural nodule.
In these locations, schwannomas can resemble other more common intra-axial cystic neoplasms including pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
, meningioma if near a centrally located nerve root [9, 10, 13, 14], or less commonly a high-grade glial tumor .
A magnetic resonance imaging scan was subsequently done, and the report suggested the presence of a large, left frontal lobe, multicystic inhomogenous tumour with characteristics consistent with a ganglioglioma or pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
While high-grade glial neoplasms and metastatic disease often present acutely with new onset seizures, lower grade malignancies such as ganglioglioma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
, dysembryoplastic neuro-epithelial tumor (DNET), and pilocytic astrocytoma often localized to the neocortical areas and can present clinically and radiographically similar to cortical dysplasias.
Dunham, "Possible differentiation of cerebral glioblastoma into pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
: an unusual case in an infant," Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, vol.