xanthine derivative

xanthine derivative

any one of the closely related alkaloids caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. They are found in plants widely distributed geographically and are variously ingested as components in beverages such as coffee, tea, cocoa, and cola drinks. The xanthine derivatives or methylxanthines have pharmacological properties that stimulate the central nervous system, produce diuresis, and relax smooth muscles. Theobromine has low potency and is seldom used as a pharmaceutic. Caffeine produces greater central nervous system stimulation than theophylline or theobromine. Caffeine and theophylline also affect the circulatory system, tending to dilate the systemic blood vessels but increasing cerebrovascular resistance with an associated decrease in cerebral blood flow and the oxygen tension of the brain. The ability of the xanthine derivatives to relax smooth muscle is used in certain treatments of asthma. Theophylline is most effective in such treatment and markedly increases vital capacity. The methylxanthines reinforce the release of certain secretions of various endocrine and exocrine tissues, except for mast cells and, possibly, certain other mediators of inflammation. Consumption of xanthine beverages may cause various problems, including restlessness and inability to sleep, GI irritation, and excessive myocardial stimulation characterized by premature systole and tachycardia.
References in periodicals archive ?
In this day and age, emphasizing its identity as a Xanthine derivative would be practically a kiss of death with all anticaffeine propaganda prevalent.
It has been reported that a number of substances, both of synthetic and natural origins, exhibit bioisosteric relationship [5] including essential amino acids, nitrogenous bases (purines, pyrimidines), xanthine derivatives, neueurotransmitters, salicylic and anthranilic acid etc.
16: Classical bioisosterism among xanthine derivatives.
Xanthine derivatives Lot No 12 - Medicinal products for the nervous system.
High-Speed Analysis of Xanthine Derivatives and Triarylmethane Ink Dyes with Ultra Fast HPLC" details analysis, retention time and peak area reproducibility using the Prominence UFLC.
beta]-blockers, [beta]-agonists, calcium channel blockers, or xanthine derivatives.
Rescue medications, including inhaled short-acting [beta]-2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, cromones such as cromoglycate and nedocromil, and xanthine derivatives, were permitted on an as-needed basis during the baseline and doubleblind treatment periods.