Table 1: Total Serum Protein, Activities and Specific Activities of Serum Xanthine Oxidase, Xanthine Dehydrogenase
, and Uric Acid for all Control and Patients groups.
(a) Interferon and other cytokines increase xanthine oxidoreductase gene (XOR) expression as well as the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase
(XDH) to xanthine oxidase (XO) and XOR serum level (reviewed in ).
Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase
to oxidase in ischemic rat intestine: a reevaluation.
Mutational analysis of the xanthine dehydrogenase
gene in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive classical xanthinuria.
Tungsten has also been shown to prevent incorporation of molybdenum without itself being incorporated into xanthine dehydrogenase
. Sulfite oxidase has also been shown to be inhibited by arsenite in vitro (Gardlik and Rajagopalan 1991).
However, under certain conditions, such as the disruption of blood flow to a tissue, xanthine dehydrogenase
is converted to a ROS-producing oxidase form.
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of xanthine dehydrogenase
and xanthine oxidase isolated from bovine milk.
The uric acid concentration is a useful diagnostic marker for deficiencies of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (PRPPS)  hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), xanthine dehydrogenase
(XDH), and molybdenum cofactor (2).
The results also revealed that male albino rats fed on a diet containing sodium arsenite NaAsO2 (200mg/kg) for 6 weeks displayed increased activities of serum alkaline phosphatase, g-glutamyl transferase and transaminases and increased malondialdehyde level and xanthine oxidase activity concomitant with a decrease in glutathione level and xanthine dehydrogenase
, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities.
Interestingly, cytokines can irreversibly convert endothelial xanthine dehydrogenase
to its active form, XO .
This could be due to the fact that the OPCs present in the COC extract may normalize the reducing equivalents in the cell by increasing the glutathione (GSH) pool, which can bring back the enzyme into less reactive native form xanthine dehydrogenase
When the enzyme is deficient, adenine is not salvaged to AMP, but instead is oxidized to 8-hydroxyadenine and 2,8-dihydroxyadenine by xanthine dehydrogenase