Diuretic

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diuretic

 [di″u-ret´ik]
1. increasing diuresis (urine excretion).
2. an agent that does this, such as common substances like tea, coffee, and water, as well as medications. Types include loop diuretics, osmotic diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and thiazide diuretics, with the most frequently prescribed being the thiazides. Diuretics are used chiefly in treatment of edema resulting from conditions other than kidney disease; the abnormal kidney rarely responds to them. They are most useful in relieving edema accompanying congestive heart failure. Many, especially the thiazides, are used in the management of hypertension, particularly when used in conjunction with other kinds of antihypertensive agents.
loop d's a group of diuretics that block active transport of chloride in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, which stops coupled passive reabsorption of sodium. Some may cause ototoxicity with reversible impaired hearing, and kidney damage from nephrotoxicity; therefore these are contraindicated in renal disease. furosemide, which belongs to this group, is a sulfonamide; hence, hypersensitivity reaction can develop in persons with a specific allergy.
osmotic d's a group of diuretics that produce a rapid loss of sodium and water by inhibiting their reabsorption in the kidney tubules and loop of Henle; they also increase the osmolality of plasma, thus increasing diffusion of water from the intraocular and cerebrospinal fluids, and are used for reducing the pressure of these fluids. mannitol is clinically the most useful of this group, but it has significant side effects such as pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure.
potassium-sparing d's a group of diuretics that block the exchange of sodium for potassium and hydrogen ions in the distal tubule, causing an increase in excretion of sodium and chloride with a negligible increase in potassium excretion. They do not carry the threat of potassium loss, but they do present a potential problem of hyperkalemia. triamterene, one of the diuretics in this group, also can lead to hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.
thiazide d's a group of diuretics in the thiazide family; they decrease reabsorption of sodium by the kidney and thereby increase loss of water and sodium. They also increase urinary secretion of chloride, potassium, and, to some extent, bicarbonate ions. These are the most frequently prescribed diuretics, because they are moderately potent and have relatively few side effects. Most act within 1 hour after being taken and are excreted in 3 to 6 hours. Patients who are taking a thiazide diuretic should be monitored for electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, and, in the case of diabetic patients, hyperglycemia, which may necessitate an increase in their insulin dosage. Because gastrointestinal irritation can occur, it is advisable to take these diuretics at mealtime.

di·u·ret·ic

(dī'yū-ret'ik), Do not confuse this word with dieretic.
1. Promoting excretion of urine.
2. An agent that increases the amount of urine excreted.

diuretic

(dī′ə-rĕt′ĭk)
adj.
Tending to increase the discharge of urine.
n.
A substance or drug that tends to increase the discharge of urine.

di′u·ret′ic·al·ly adv.

diuretic

Herbal medicine
A herb that stimulates urination, which includes bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), burdock (Arctium lappa), couch grass (Agropyrum repens), hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens), juniper (Juniperus communis), parsley (Petroselinum sativum), pellitory-of-the-wall (Parietaria officinalis), queen-of-the-meadow (Eupatorium purpureum), stone root (Collinsonia canadensis), wild carrot (Daucus carota), yarrow (Achillea millefolium).

diuretic

Physiology adjective Referring to or evoking diuresis noun Water pill An agent that ↑ excretion of fluid from the renal tubules, which are most commonly used in CHF Adverse effects Hemodynamics–eg, reflex tachcardia, SNS activation with catecholamine release, activation of RAA system, renal function–eg, ↓ perfusion leading to ↑ BUN and creatinine, electrolytes–eg, ↓ potassium and/or magnesium. See Potassium-sparing diuretic.

di·u·ret·ic

(dī-yūr-et'ik)
1. Promoting excretion of urine.
2. An agent that increases the amount of urine excreted.

diuretic

1. A drug or other agency that causes an increased output of urine. Diuretics are used to rid the body of OEDEMA fluid in conditions such as HEART FAILURE and kidney disease.
2. Causing a DIURESIS. See also LOOP DIURETICS.

diuretic

a substance that enhances DIURESIS.

Diuretic

Medicine that increases the amount of urine produced and relieves excess fluid buildup in body tissues. Diuretics may be used in treating high blood pressure, lung disease, premenstrual syndrome, and other conditions.

di·u·ret·ic

(dī-yūr-et'ik) Do not confuse this word with dieretic.
1. Promoting excretion of urine.
2. An agent that increases amount of urine excreted.