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1. any organic compound containing the hydroxy (-OH) functional group except those in which the OH group is attached to an aromatic ring, which are called phenols. Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether the carbon atom to which the OH group is attached is bonded to one, two, or three other carbon atoms and as monohydric, dihydric, or trihydric according to whether they contain one, two, or three OH groups; the latter two are called diols and triols, respectively.
2. an official preparation of ethanol, used as a disinfectant, solvent, and preservative, and applied topically as a rubbing compound, disinfectant, astringent, hemostatic, and coolant.
absolute alcohol dehydrated a.
benzyl alcohol a colorless liquid used as a bacteriostatic in solutions for injection and as a topical local anesthetic.
dehydrated alcohol an extremely hygroscopic, transparent, colorless, volatile liquid used as a solvent and injected into nerves and ganglia for relief of pain. Called also absolute a.
denatured alcohol ethanol made unfit for human consumption by the addition of substances known as denaturants. Although it should never be taken internally, denatured alcohol is widely used on the skin as a disinfectant.
ethyl alcohol (grain alcohol) ethanol.
isopropyl alcohol a transparent, volatile colorless liquid used as a solvent and disinfectant and applied topically as an antiseptic; called also isopropanol. Diluted with water to approximately 70 per cent strength, it is called isopropyl rubbing alcohol and is used as a rubbing compound.
methyl alcohol methanol.
phenethyl alcohol (phenylethyl alcohol) a colorless liquid used as an antimicrobial agent in pharmaceuticals.
rubbing alcohol a preparation of acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and ethanol, used as a rubefacient.
wood alcohol methanol.
CH3OH; a flammable, toxic, mobile liquid, used as an industrial solvent, antifreeze, and in chemical manufacture; ingestion may result in severe acidosis, visual impairment, and other effects on the central nervous system.
methanolA polar alcohol used as an industrial solvent; it is miscible with water, ethanol, ether, and petroleum derivatives (e.g., gasoline), and can be found in canned fuel and in antifreeze, from which it may be abused as an inebriant by indigent alcoholics. Methanol is metabolised to formaldehyde and formate, causing severe metabolic acidosis, optic nerve damage and blindness.
60–250 ml; as little as 15 ml can be fatal.
Overload patient with ethanol, which competes with methanol for sites on alcohol dehydrogenase, reducing methanol metabolites and toxicity.