Responding to white reaction
against the civil rights movement, King offered observations applicable to the eruption of white reaction
against President Barack Obama.
The 1870s, the forces of white reaction
to these new racial norms grew and began an effort to push back Jacksonville blacks from full engagement.
It will be very difficult to bring the Whites to accept such a government in which Mugabe would have such a prominent role, and the risks of a White reaction
would be strongest in these circumstances.
Topics include revolution and emancipation in Saint Domingue; French abolitionism; the relationship between capitalism and slavery; British evangelicals, economic warfare, and the abolition of the slave trade, shipping patterns and mortality in the African slave trade to Rio de Janeiro; fluctuations in sex and age ratios in the slave trade from 1663 to 1864; slave resistance and white reaction
in the British Windward Islands; British parliamentary politics and the abolition of slavery, French anti-slavery and the revolutions of 1848, Brazilian abolition and the contraband slave trade to Brazil; the control of land and labor in the British West Indies following abolition; and the compatibility of the slave and palm oil trades in the Bight of Biafra (also called the Bight of Bonny).
As a number of American urban historians have pointed out, this process of black assertion and white reaction
utterly transformed the demography of American cities after the Second World War as blacks flocked to them and whites fled from them.
As elsewhere, the sudden appearance in their midst of activists challenging a long-entrenched system of white supremacy, yet committed to a creed of nonviolence, created a predicament for local people, who knew just how ferocious the white reaction
to the CORE workers would be.
But blacks have had to live with this reality--and worse--for over a century and it is interesting to see white reaction
when the boot is on the other foot.
In the 1960s, as blacks began a sustained political action against the white supremacists by articulating the right to vote, the white reaction
was to create the White Citizens Council.
Interestingly, the overall white reaction
was not as antagonistic as we expected, primarily because we didn't use our airtime denouncing white racism but rather documenting, exploring, and articulating African-American political, economic, and cultural issues.
But Perlsteins accounts of black demonstrations and demands, and of white reaction
, together with the fact that racial unrest continued long after Barry Goldwater's moment in the spotlight, should leave little doubt in any reader's mind that it was the "movement" and the nation's fearful and antagonistic response--not a particular political figure or campaign, however symbolic--that really broke the liberal consensus.
Local white reaction
ranged from support by some ex-Confederates and planters to fear by Unionists and other men and women who faced his hostile acts.
According to Bayor, the implementation of Affirmative Action policies in hiring and promotion procedures to address the inequalities resulting from the earlier race-based policies which initially excluded African Americans from these jobs, segregated them within the bureaus once hired and then failed to promote them in sufficient numbers ultimately "led to a hostile white reaction
" which continues to divide the departments and the city as a whole.