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The membranous sac filled with amniotic fluid that protects a fetus during pregnancy. Also called bag of waters.
1. a clear, colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid, H2O.
2. an aqueous solution of a medicinal substance.
a sheet with water-filled channels through which heated water is circulated by an external pump. This is placed beneath an anesthetized patient to maintain body temperature during surgery and avoid hypothermia.
see total body water.
body water loss
is principally through the urine, supplemented by sweating, fecal water and evaporation in expired air.
recorded as toxic due to tunicamycin in mixture produced probably by fungi.
the animals are cut off from any source of water. May be by accident or neglect.
water deprivation syndrome
the animals become frenzied and begin to destroy their surroundings in an attempt to find water. There is abdominal gauntness, sunken eyes and weakness, and abortion may occur later.
water deprivation test
a test of the concentrating ability of renal tubules and their responsiveness to endogenous antidiuretic hormone. Urine specific gravity and/or osmolality is measured before water is withheld, at intervals during, and after an average time period of 12 to 24 hours. The normal animal should produce urine that is progressively more concentrated, with an osmolality becoming greater than that of the plasma.
water that has been purified by distillation.
a primitive method of euthanasia, especially for unwanted, newborn animals.
the concentration of individual electrolytes and of groups of, e.g. monovalent electrolytes, in serum, in tissue fluids and in intracellular fluid is critical to normal bodily function and is maintained by variation in the renal excretory rate of each electrolyte.
conservation of body water during times of deprivation or excessive loss due to diarrhea or heavy sweating is effected by an increase in the concentration of the urine by the renal tubules.
prolonged head-out water immersion has been used in the treatment of skeletal injuries in horses because of the weightlessness induced but there are serious implications of osteoporosis.
can occur if very thirsty animals, on limited salt intake, are allowed unlimited access to water. There is tremor, incoordination and convulsions and there may be polioencephalomalacia. Hemoglobinuria and hypothermia may also occur.
water loading test
measures the concentrating power of the kidney by combining the water deprivation and ADH tests.
a substance injected into the body that will diffuse through all of the body water compartments. The reduction in its concentration after injection can be used as a measure of body water. Tritiated water is used for the purpose.
water marker decay curve
the curve of declining concentration of a water marker in intravascular fluid.
administration of medication in drinking water is used particularly in birds and also in swine.
water provocative test
measurement of intraocular pressure before and after the administration of a large volume of water by stomach tube. A marked increase occurs in glaucomatous eyes.
see sodium chloride.
water vapor partial pressure
in humans is the same in venous and arterial blood, in pulmonary alveolar air and in tissues; it is assumed that the same generalization applies to animals.