Even if prey survive predator attacks without visible damage, they must nonetheless lose fitness for warning coloration to be selected.
A question of taste: crypsis and warning coloration in freshwater zooplankton communities.
Warning coloration evolves by individual selection: evidence from marine gastropods with pelagic larvae.
Aposematism, conventional signalling theory, frequency-dependence, handicap signalling theory, honesty, mimicry, unpalatable prey, warning coloration.
In this paper we build on earlier suggestions (Grafen, 1990b; Zahavi, 1991), and analyze the handicap theory's ability to explain the major design features of one of the most extensively studied of all signalling systems, namely warning coloration and mimicry.