Caption: FIGURE 2: Schematic diagram of polio transmission with both OPV ([rho]) and IPV ([S.sub.p]) immunization and waning immunity
Secondly, the study uses a mathematical model, so it is an estimate of waning immunity
. Nevertheless, the observations alert health care providers and the community that pertussis can occur even in vaccinated persons, especially as time passes after vaccination.
to pertussis following 5 doses of DTaP.
(23) To conclude, implementation of a MenACWY booster would enlarge the IMD protection and target the waning immunity
after primary MenC immunisation.
Pertussis, or whooping cough, has reemerged in adolescents and adults due to the waning immunity
of childhood vaccines, subsequently increasing the risk of transmission to susceptible populations, particularly infants.
Should waning immunity
develop beyond 5 years, data from a subset of 114 Gardasil subjects and 127 controls who were given one dose of Gardasil at 60 months suggest that a single-dose booster would likely work: The original Gardasil recipients demonstrated thousands-fold greater increases in anti-HPV geometric mean titers for both types 16 and 18 than did those who had received placebo 5 years earlier, suggesting that the vaccine induces strong immune memory.
One of the concerns about the current mumps epidemic is whether people have developed waning immunity
One concern about the vaccine is that waning immunity
over time could result in increased incidence of varicella infection during adulthood.
Vaccinologist Stanley Plotkin, MD, eloquently detailed potential reasons for these outbreaks in a commentary published in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society entitled "Mumps: A pain in the neck" (2018 May 15;7:91-2).These include poor B-cell memory after vaccination that results in waning immunity
However, the study found that pertussis outbreaks occurred in highly vaccinated populations as well, which points to waning immunity
Most of the cases among adolescents aged 14-16 years were among those who had previously received Tdap [greater than or equal to]3 years earlier, suggesting that their illness was the result of waning immunity
. It is likely that increased incidence will continue to be observed among this cohort in the absence of a new vaccine or more effective vaccination strategy.
Convincing evidence of waning immunity
to the current five-dose diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine series completed before age 7 years in the United States comes from research at the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center in Oakland, Calif.