However, these two studies suggest that even slow running, as infrequently as two to three times weekly, improves walking economy
and decreases mortality.
Furthermore, the results showed that almost all subjects achieved lower submaximal [??][O.sub.2] and HR by performing the same robotic walking task after the training period, suggesting an improved ability to employ the assistance of the device or an improvement in "robotic walking economy" .
Despite this possible variation in external load, almost all subjects had a lower [??][O.sub.2] and HR at the last measurement compared with the first, which still indicates an improvement in robotic walking economy.
Peripheral arterial disease causes alterations in gait (Crowther et al., 2007) and improvements in walking performance without changes in V[O.sub.2peak] provide evidence of an improved walking economy as noted elsewhere (Womack et al., 1997).
Improved walking economy in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
Those on the basic principles include such issues as ecological footprints, climate change, the role of non-motorized modes in systems, walking in an international and historical context, explanations for decline in walking, visions for city traffic and mobility, formal indicators, securing space, cycling for women, health issues, the walking economy
, planning for safety, perceptions of walking and cycling and car restraint.
Possible causes for such high electrical power requirements are that such designs do not adequately leverage the passive dynamics of the leg [9-10] and elastic energy storage and return of tendon-like structures , both of which are key strategies that result in the relatively high metabolic walking economy