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1 an alert state of mind.
2 sleeplessness or insomnia.


believed to occur when the tonic flow of impulses from the reticular activating system exceeds the critical level for sustaining consciousness; reduction of reticular activating system activity is the basis of the pharmacological induction of sedation.

Patient discussion about wakefulness

Q. Waking up to the bathroom I'm a 66 years old man and usually healthy, but in the last few months I find myself waking up several times during the night to urinate. It also takes the stream longer than usuall to end. I don't have pain during urinating, and other than that everything is more or less OK. Can that be related to the prostate? I heard that in adult men the prostate grows and obstruct the urine. Does that mean I have cancer in the prostate? Thank you!

A. I uritane every hour on the hour. I feel the problem is my consumption of coffee is causing dehydration. Nevertheless, I should not have such frequency. I am 53 and get up at least 3 times every night. Sure, I can see my Urologist and he will tell me it is my prostate slight enlargement, and prescribe that drug one takes to have a full session, or, a more evasive treatment where he inserts this rod into my pennis to clear away obstruction? I don't know, perhaps there is something I can start, you know, a natural remedy? Your thoughts are welcomed. Oh,not to mention, another related symptom is the innability to sustain an errection for a decent period of time. Ok, your turn, let me know.

Q. migraine headaches that wake you up early morning?

A. Nocturnal headaches, headaches which appear during the night and awaken the patient from sleep, characteristically occur with cluster headaches (another syndrome of chronic headache), but migraine can awaken patients as well.

However, in a patient with the recent onset of nocturnal headaches, brain tumor and glaucoma should be carefully excluded so consulting a doctor may be indicated.

Q. I go to sleep & use to wake up paralyzed in my sleep. I go to sleep & use to wake up paralyzed in my sleep. But not asleep, just laying there, eyes wide open paralyzed. I couldn't breath, I couldn't speak, move anything but my eyes. I could look around but I couldn't even breathe. This has happened a few times in my old house, once in my mother's house (she lived by the side of a graveyard), and then only once in my new house. What is it and what do you think is causing it?

A. I had the same problem but never at night...and it only happened during the day when I take nap. I will wake up and I can't move or talk, I can't open my eyes either. I've never been able to snap out of it though, I just have to lay there until I go back to sleep, and usually it doesn't happen when I wake up the next time. Needless to say I try NOT to take naps anymore, because it happens nearly every time.

More discussions about wakefulness
References in periodicals archive ?
On the first night, the high-dose drug reduced wakefulness after sleep by 40 minutes; the low-dose drug did so by 35 minutes.
This increased brain reactivity may promote awakenings during the night, and may thus facilitate memorisation of dreams during brief periods of wakefulness.
Separating sleep need from wakefulness and identifying two different proteins involved in these steps represents a fundamental advance," explains Greene.
Each epoch was assigned to one of the following categories: wakefulness (low-amplitude EEG activity, high-voltage EMG activity), SWS (large-amplitude, synchronous EEG with sleep spindles present, greatly diminished tonic EMG, eyes closed, small eye movement potentials present, recumbent posture, usually lying on the animal's side or curled up with head down), REM sleep (desynchronized EEG, absence of tonic EMG, intermittent REM potentials, occasional body twitches while maintaining a recumbent sleep posture), NREM sleep (high-amplitude slow or spindle EEG activity, low-amplitude EMG activities), light sleep (equals NREM sleep minus SWS).
The researchers noted that, while the dnSNARE mice were administered doxycycline in their diet, there was no significant difference between dnSNARE and wild-type (normal) mice in the amount of rapid eye movement sleep (REM), non-REM (NREM) sleep and wakefulness.
We didn't know it would coordinate with sleep and wakefulness," Holtzman says.
Brain cells called astrocytes help to cause the urge to sleep that comes with prolonged wakefulness, according to a study in mice, funded by the National Institutes of Health.
These studies have demonstrated that, at least for older children, the BIS during anaesthesia is lower than the BIS during wakefulness and the BIS usually decreases with increasing dose of anaesthetic.
Another gene, REV-ERB, appears to work in opposition to Per2 having its peak activity at around 4pm, and is thought by the Welsh researchers to be the gene associated with wakefulness.
5) Wake- and sleep-promoting neurons may inhibit each other, resulting in stable wakefulness and sleep.
Miller, a retired Senior Research Scientist at Air Force Research Laboratory, "16 to 17 hours of continuous wakefulness (a normal day) brings the average person to an approximate cognitive equivalency with a 0.
A gene that Tafti calls Homer-1a, becomes increasingly active over hours of wakefulness to bring on the sandman.