vulvovaginal candidiasis

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infection by fungi of the genus Candida, generally C. albicans, most commonly involving the skin, oral mucosa (thrush), respiratory tract, or vagina; occasionally there is a systemic infection or endocarditis. It is most often associated with pregnancy, glycosuria, diabetes mellitus, or use of antibiotics. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found that in the United States this condition is the fourth most common cause of nosocomial infections of the blood stream. Called also candidosis and moniliasis.

The most prominent symptom of vaginitis due to Candida infection is severe itching. Sexual transmission is unlikely. Intravaginal cream containing miconazole or clotrimazole, applied each night for one week, usually clears up the infection. Difficulty or pain with swallowing, or retrosternal pain, may indicate candidiasis of the esophagus. Systemic antifungal therapy is indicated for esophagitis and other more severe forms of the disease. Therapeutic options include ketoconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin b. Chronic suppressive therapy is sometimes required for severely immunocompromised patients. The Infectious Disease Society of America has published “Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Candidiasis” on their web site,
atrophic candidiasis oral candidiasis marked by erythematous, pebbled patches on the hard or soft palate, buccal mucosa, and dorsal surface of the tongue, a complication of numerous different conditions such as vitamin deficiency, diabetes mellitus, or poorly fitting dentures. There are acute forms and a chronic form called denture stomatitis.
bronchopulmonary candidiasis candidiasis of the respiratory tree, occurring in a mild afebrile form manifested as chronic bronchitis, and in a usually fatal form resembling tuberculosis. Called also bronchocandidiasis.
chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis a group comprising a number of varying forms of Candida infection, marked by chronic candidiasis of the skin and nails and the mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina that is resistant to treatment; it may be localized or diffuse, is sometimes familial, and may be associated with disorders of the immune and endocrine systems.
endocardial candidiasis Candida endocarditis.
oral candidiasis thrush.
pulmonary candidiasis a type of fungal pneumonia caused by infection with Candida species, seen especially in immunocompromised patients or those with malignancies. Called also Candida pneumonia.
vaginal candidiasis (vulvovaginal candidiasis) candidal infection of the vagina, and usually also the vulva, commonly characterized by itching, creamy white discharge, vulvar redness and swelling, and dyspareunia. Called also Candida or candidal vaginitis and Candida or candidal vulvovaginitis.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is defined as signs and symptoms of inflammation of the vulva and vagina in the presence of Candida spp.
Women with no history of vulvovaginal candidiasis have a very high threshold for the number of yeast required to initiate the signals that attract the neutrophils which seem to promote the symptoms associated with infection.
They have been licensed for the short-term oral treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis and have been proved to be safer than both amphotericin B and ketoconazole.
Wagner, "Prevalence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in 5 European countries and the United States: results from an internet panel survey," Journal of Lower Genital TractDisease, vol.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis in postmenopausal women: the role of hormone replacement therapy.
Rare side-effect events occurred, including a 1.8% incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis in the first 2 years (and zero in the fourth year).
Factors involved in patient choice of oral or vaginal treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Journal of Patient Preference and Adherence, 16(8), 31-34.
Exclusion criteria included breastfeeding, history of herbal drug allergy, known chronic disease, concurrent vaginal infection, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, abnormal uterine bleeding and a variety of medication exclusions amongst others.
Factors associated with symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis: A study among women attending a primary healthcare clinic in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.
Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and susceptibility to fluconazole in women.
(Obstetric management of Candida krusei and Candida albicans in a patient with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Case report).