The results show that deviation of voltmeter
readings (Volts) from calculated readings (volts) for ideal Nernst's law is minimum near pH value 7 but maximum as we approaches to acidic pH values or very alkaline pH values.
Because any resistance generates voltage noise, the source resistance also places a fundamental limit on how well the voltmeter
can resolve [V.sub.s].
resistance [R.sub.V] meets condition [R.sub.V] [much greater than] [R.sub.0], then simpler formula is valid
A NIST scientist working with staff from Ohio University, examined how time-base distortion causes nonlinear distortion of the electrical waveforms measured by digital sampling instruments, such as digital voltmeters
and multimeters, sampling waveform recorders and oscilloscopes.
For the linear approximation to be valid, the current source must alternate quickly, and the voltmeter
must make accurate measurements within a short period of time.
An improved , gated- oscillator type of time-base has now been developed for the voltmeter
that overcomes the limitations of the earlier design.
The ECONseries family of eight mini-instruments for the USB 2.0 or 1.1 bus is supported by GO!, a new application software package that includes oscilloscope, chart-recorder, voltmeter
, waveform-generator, file-viewer, digital input/output, counter/timer, and rate-generator functions.
Lascar Electronics has introduced the OEM 113, a three digit, LCD voltmeter
combining low current consumption with a compact body design and clear, 0.31" digit height.
Features include a four digit LCD ammeter, voltmeter
, and power meter; an adjustable upper voltage limit; an RS-485 interface; and power factor correction.