vitiligo

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Vitiligo

 

Definition

Vitiligo is a condition in which a loss of cells that give color to the skin (melanocytes) results in smooth, white patches in the midst of normally pigmented skin.

Description

Vitiligo is a common, often inherited disorder characterized by areas of well-defined, milky white skin. People with vitiligo may have eye abnormalities and also have a higher incidence of thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, and pernicious anemia. Vitiligo affects about 1-2% of the world's population. It is more easily observed in sun-exposed areas of the body and in darker skin types, but it affects any area of the body and all races. Vitiligo seems to affect men and women equally, although women more frequently seek treatment for the disorder.
Vitiligo may appear as one or two well-defined white patches or it may appear over large portions of the body. Typical sites for generalized vitiligo are areas surrounding body openings, bony areas, fingers, and toes. It can begin at any age but about 50% of the time it starts before the age of 20.

Causes and symptoms

Vitiligo is a disorder with complex causes. People with vitiligo seem to inherit a genetic predisposition for the disorder, and the appearance of disorder can be brought on by a variety of precipitating causes. Many people report that their vitiligo first appeared following a traumatic or stressful event, such as an accident, job loss, death of a family member, severe sunburn, or serious illness. There are at least three theories about the underlying mechanism of vitiligo. One theory says nerve endings in the skin release a chemical that is toxic to the melanocytes. A second theory states that the melanocytes simply self-destruct. The third explanation is that vitiligo is a type of autoimmune disease in which the immune system targets the body's own cells and tissues.
The primary symptom of vitiligo is the loss of skin color. Hair growing from the affected skin areas also lacks color. In addition, people with vitiligo may have pigment abnormalities of the retina or iris of the eyes. A minority of patients also may have inflammation of the retina or iris, but vision is not usually impaired.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of vitiligo is usually made by observation. Progressive, white areas found at typical sites point to a diagnosis of vitiligo. If the diagnosis is not certain, the doctor will test for other conditions which can mimic vitiligo, such as chemical leukoderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. If the tests rule out other conditions, vitiligo is confirmed.

Key terms

Autoimmune disease — A condition in which something triggers the immune system to react against and attack the body's own tissues.
Autologous transplantation — A procedure wherein the person donates blood or tissue to themselves.
Iris — The colored part of the eye.
Pernicious anemia — A disease in which red blood cells are abnormally formed due to the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12.
Retina — The innermost layer of the eye, it contains the rods and cones, specialized light-sensitive cells.

Treatment

Vitiligo cannot be cured, but it can be managed. Cosmetics can be used to improve the appearance of the white areas not covered by clothing. Sunscreens prevent burning of the affected areas and also prevent the normal skin around the patches from becoming darker. Skin creams and oral medications are available for severe cases, but they have side effects that may make them undesirable. Autologous transplantation of skin is an option for those who are severely affected. Bleaching or depigmentation of the normal skin is another option.
In addition to treating the skin, attention should be paid to the psychological well-being of the individual. Extreme cases of vitiligo can be unattractive and may affect a person's outlook and social interactions.

Prognosis

The condition is usually gradually progressive. Sometimes the patches grow rapidly over a short period, and then the condition remains stable for many years.

Prevention

No measures are currently known to prevent vitiligo.

Resources

Organizations

Frontier's International Vitiligo Foundation. 4 Rozina Court, Owings Mills, MD 21117. (301) 594-0958.
National Foundation for Vitiligo and Pigment Disorders. 9032 South Normandy Drive, Centerville, OH 45459. (513) 885-5739.
National Vitiligo Foundation. P.O. Box 6337, Tyler, TX 75703. (903) 531-9767. 〈73071.33@compuserve.com〉.

vitiligo

 [vit″ĭ-li´go]
a condition in which destruction of melanocytes in small or large circumscribed areas results in patches of depigmentation often having a hyperpigmented border, and often enlarging slowly. adj., adj vitilig´inous.

vit·i·li·go

, pl.

vit·i·lig·i·nes

(vit'i-lī'gō, vit'i-lij'i-nēz), [MIM*193200]
The appearance on otherwise normal skin of nonpigmented white patches of varied sizes, often symmetrically distributed and usually bordered by hyperpigmented areas; hair in the affected areas is usually white. Epidermal melanocytes are completely lost in depigmented areas by an autoimmune process.
Synonym(s): acquired leukoderma
[L. a skin eruption, fr. vitium, blemish, vice]

vitiligo

/vit·i·li·go/ (vit″ĭ-li´go) a usually progressive, chronic pigmentary anomaly of the skin manifested by depigmented white patches that may be surrounded by a hyperpigmented border.vitilig´inous

vitiligo

(vĭt′l-ī′gō, -ē′gō)
n.
Partial or total loss of skin pigmentation, often occurring in patches.

vitiligo

[vit′ilē′gō, -ī′gō]
Etymology: L, vitium, blemish
a benign acquired skin disease of unknown cause, consisting of irregular patches of various sizes totally lacking in pigment and often having hyperpigmented borders. The hypopigmented area is caused by loss of melanocytes. Exposed areas of skin are most often affected. Treatment using 8-methoxypsoralen requires extreme care and carefully regulated sun exposure. Some success has been achieved with the use of narrowband ultraviolet light and topical application of protopic. Waterproof, sun-protective cosmetics are often used to cover the patches. Compare albinism, piebald. vitiliginous, adj.
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Vitiligo

vitiligo

Dermatology An acquired condition characterized by patchy depigmentation in the face, elbows, knees, hands, feet, and genitalia, often at sites of trauma and pressure, which may appear at any age; there is an ↑ incidence in some families; autoimmunity may be a factor, as there is selective loss of melanocytes in the involved area. See Melanocyte.

vit·i·li·go

, pl. vitiligines (vit'i-lī'gō, -lij'inēz)
The appearance on otherwise normal skin of nonpigmented white patches of varied sizes; hair in the affected areas is usually white. Epidermal melanocytes are completely lost in depigmented areas by an autoimmune process.
[L. a skin eruption, fr. vitium, blemish, vice]

vitiligo

(vit-il-i'go) [L.]
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VITILIGO
A skin disorder characterized by the localized loss of melanocytes, with patchy loss of skin pigment. The depigmented areas, which appear most commonly on the hands, face, and genital region, are flat and pale and surrounded by normal pigmentation. Vitiligo affects all ages and races but is most noticeable in people with dark skin. The cause is unknown, but may be an autoimmune process since autoantibodies to melanocytes have been identified and vitiligo often occurs with autoimmune diseases. Synonym: leukoderma; skin, piebald See: illustration

Treatment

Oral and topical synthetic trioxsalen and a natural psoralen, methoxsalen, are used with exposure to long-wave ultraviolet light, but the efficacy is doubtful. The lesions may be masked by use of cosmetic preparations. Vitiliginous areas should be protected from sunburn by applying a 5% aminobenzoic acid solution or gel to the affected areas. The use of 5% fluorouracil cream applied under an occlusive dressing to the depigmented areas may cause erosion of the dermis and, after re-epithelialization, pigment may reappear.

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VITILIGO

vitiligo capitis

Vitiligo of the scalp with depigmentation of the hairs of the affected area.
illustration

perinevic vitiligo

Vitiligo surrounding a nevus.

vitiligo

A skin disorder that features white patches, of variable size and shape, especially on the face, the backs of the hands, the armpits and around the anus. Vitiligo is inconspicuous in white people in winter but very obvious in black people or tanned whites. The affected areas of skin are deficient in pigment cells called melanocytes, but the cause of this is unclear. An immunological process is thought to be involved. Repigmentation can be achieved by taking a melanin precursor, L-phenylalanine, and then exposing the skin to ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT.

vitiligo

autoimmune-related, patchy melanin loss in skin, due to formation of antibodies directed against melanocytes

vitiligo 

A disease of the skin characterized by areas of depigmentation of various sizes and shapes. In the eye, it can be seen in the choroid or iris. It is often associated with syphilis or tuberculosis and forms part of the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. See poliosis.

vit·i·li·go

, pl. vitiligines (vit'i-lī'gō, -lij'nēz) [MIM*193200]
The appearance on otherwise normal skin of nonpigmented white patches of varied sizes; hair in the affected areas is usually white. Epidermal melanocytes are completely lost in depigmented areas by an autoimmune process.
[L. a skin eruption, fr. vitium, blemish, vice]

vitiligo (vit´ilē´gō, vit´ilī´gō),

n a skin condition characterized by spotty areas of depigmentation.

vitiligo

a condition of the skin in which destruction of melanocytes in small or large circumscribed areas results in patches of depigmentation, often having a hyperpigmented border, and often enlarging slowly. The condition is common in horses and cattle, often occurring after injury or surgery. Called also 'snowflakes', pinky syndrome. See also achromotrichia, Arabian fading syndrome, freeze branding.

Patient discussion about vitiligo

Q. Is there any treatment for Vitiligo? Can anyone tell the how Vitiligo treated completely

A. Treatment of vitiligo is no doubt very tricky thing and may take too lang time and also cureless in some cases. But there are dozens of different treatment options are available for vitiligo.
The following are the possible treatment options for vitiligo skin disorder.

(1)Home Remedies

(2)Alternate treatments
(2.a)Oral therapies with natural Psoralen
(2.b)Topical therapies using natural Psoralen
(2.c)Homeopathic
(2.d)Ayer Vedic

(3)Prescription Medicine
(3.a)Topical steroid therapy
(3.b)Psoralen photochemotherapy

(4)Surgical Therapy
(4.a)Autologous skin grafts
(4.b)Skin grafts using blisters
(4.c)Autologous melanocyte transplants
(4.d)Totooing

Source: http://www.antivitiligo.com/vitiligo-treatment/

Q. Is Vitiligo Hereditary?

A. Vitiligo may be hereditary in some cases. Children of vitiligo affected parents are more likely to develop vitiligo disorder. However, most children will not get vitiligo even if a parent has it. Also most people with vitiligo do not have a family history of the disorder.

Large number of inherited disorders are associated with vitiligo. They include: albinism of the ocular type, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, congenital deafness with vitilego and achalasia, dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria, ermine phenotype, familial histiocyctic reticulosis, kabuki syndrome, and the syndrome of spastic paraparesis, vitiligo, premature graying and characteristic facies.
http://www.antivitiligo.com/

Q. How to Stop Vitiligo from spreading all over the body? Can any one please tell how to stop Vitiligo from spreading all over the body

A. Normally treatment of vitiligo may take a long time. So patient should be relax and hopeful to treat this skin condition.
While start any treatment one thing is very important that not be depressed and anxious because this is the factor which can increase in vitiligo.
Take care when go out in afternoon.
Maintain a well balance diet plan which you can easily find by any dermatologist.
There are many treatment options are available for vitiligo as listed at http://www.antivitiligo.com/vitiligo-treatment/


More discussions about vitiligo
References in periodicals archive ?
Speak to other people who are also dealing with vitiligo.
Generalize vitiligo (vitiligo vulgaris) hem eriskinlerde hem de cocuklarda en sik gorulen tiptir.
Cocukluk cagi vitiligo hastalarinda en sik gozlenen birliktelik Hashimoto tiroiditi ile olanidir ve bu birliktelik non-segmental vitiligo hastalarinda daha belirgindir (8).
Vitiligo tanisi hastadan alinan anamnez ve klinik bulgularla konmaktadir.
Norund's un klasik vitiligo sinifiamasi Lokalize Fokal Unilateral Mukozal Jeneralize Vulgaris Akrofasyalis Miks Universalis
Dar bant UVB, sitokinlerin sekresyonunu ve induksiyonunu inhibe ederek inaktif durumdaki melanositlerin proliferasyonunu ve vitiligo lezyonlanna gocunu saglar.
nin (8) yaptigi calismada, vitiligolu hastalarda dar bant UVB tedavisi sonrasi, 2 yillik izlemde 31 jeneralize vitiligo hastasinin %16'sinda %75 ve uzeri repigmentasyon saglanmistir.
Sadick N, Friedman D, Harth Y: Treatment of localized vitiligo and leukoderma with a UVB/UVA1 high-intensity light system.
Baltas E, Nagy P, Bonis B, Novak Z, Ignacz F, Szabo G, Bor Z, Dobozy A, Kemeny L: Repigmentation of localized vitiligo with the xenon chloride laser.
VITILIGO is sometimes seen in people with other conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, pernicious anaemia and alopecia.
What can happen is that one family member may have a thyroid problem and another may have vitiligo, so don't be surprised if your doctor asks you if anyone in the family has any of these diseases.