Existence number of viscotoxins
, glycosides, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, tannins, lignins and sugars has been described in the mistletoe collected from diverse host plant life (Orhan et al., 2005).
Viscum album contains a large variety of biological active compounds including mistletoe lectins (ML) , viscotoxins
(VT) [12-14], triterpene acids [15, 16], flavonoids [17, 18], and polysaccharides [19, 20].
It was reported that mistletoe contains lectins (Franz et al., 1981), alkaloids (Khwaja et al., 1980), viscotoxins
(Romagnoli et al., 2000), and polysaccharides (Mueller and Anderer, 1990).
Main components of the whole plant extract are mistletoe lectins I, II, and III and six viscotoxins
, mistletoe lectins and their isoforms in mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador.
Yn ol yr erthygl, mae'r uchelwydd yn cynnwys 'lectins' a 'viscotoxins
' sy'n lladd celloedd canser a'u rhwsytro rhag atgynhyrchu yn ol y son, er nad oes fawr o dystiolaeth glinigol i gefnogi hynny.
According to product information, mistletoe preparations with high concentrations of lectins and viscotoxins
(e.g., Abnoba viscum Fraxini) are recommended for treatment of metastatic tumour disease .
The biological properties of the MLs, their bioavailability, and their stability are influenced by further components of the mistletoe extracts which include amphiphilic viscotoxins
, VisalbCBA and polysaccharides.
Subsequent preclinical research into mistletoe extracts revealed a multitude of highly interesting compounds (e.g., mistletoe lectins, viscotoxins
, alkaloids, triterpenes, and oligo- and polysaccharides) with antitumoral (cytotoxic, antiangiogenic) as well as immunomodulating properties [3-5].
A 51-year-old lady with multi-centric primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (T2bNlMx, Grade 1 follicular lymphoma) of the left lower leg, declined recommended systemic cytotoxic treatment and external beam radiotherapy; both lesions were treated with multimodal VAE therapy over 12.3 months starting in 2008, using an average of 1.05g VAE/month, amounting to 0.5-0.8 mg mistletoe lectin (ML) /month and 4.2-5.2 mg/month viscotoxins
In the majority of cases, Abnobaviscum[R] Fraxini was used because of its high content of viscotoxins
, which have (probably as well as other mistletoe ingredients) cytostatic effects in-vitro and in animal experiments.
The most important compounds are lectins, viscotoxins