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A class of phytotoxins that have a hypotensive activity and slow the heart beat.
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Viscotoxins, mistletoe lectins and their isoforms in mistletoe (Viscum album L.
The biological properties of the MLs, their bioavailability, and their stability are influenced by further components of the mistletoe extracts which include amphiphilic viscotoxins, VisalbCBA and polysaccharides.
In the majority of cases, Abnobaviscum[R] Fraxini was used because of its high content of viscotoxins, which have (probably as well as other mistletoe ingredients) cytostatic effects in-vitro and in animal experiments.
The most important compounds are lectins, viscotoxins and polysaccharides.
The content of viscotoxins was determined by HPLC-UV/VIS using various viscotoxin reference compounds.
It is now well accepted that lectins and viscotoxins are the main biologically active components in mistletoe and some of its therapeutic preparations.
Especially mistletoe lectin (ML-1) has been shown to be responsible for a variety of immunological reactions, but meanwhile it is known, that not only further MLs (such as ML-3, chitin-binding [cb] ML) but also other components of mistletoe extracts such as viscotoxins, oligo- and polysaccharides or vesicles exert immunostimulatory properties.
Viscotoxins (VT) and mistletoe lectins (ML) exerting antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects are actually supposed to be the most relevant pharmacological compounds in mistletoe (Viscum album L).
Therefore, it seems to be impossible to extract triterpene acids simultaneously to active proteinic ingredients like lectins and viscotoxins.
The result is a neutral aqueous extract with optimised high concentrations of lectins, viscotoxins and triterpene acids.