This alteration, particularly in monocytes/macrophages but not in lymphocytes, had functional consequences on viscerosensory
afferent nerves in IBS (18).
It was identified as a cortical network comprising the right anterolateral hippocampus (a region modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and somatosensory, viscerosensory
, and interoceptive brain regions), and a reduction in connectivity predicted therapy-induced improvement in patients' anxiety.
afferent fibers in the vagus nerve are stimulated by gut distention or hypertonicity and activate neurons in the NTS, whereas cells in the AP may directly detect plasma osmolarity (52).
and visceromotor fibers connecting the sensory and effector organs of the viscera with the central nervous system may be used by the virus to reach first the brain and then the eyes, gills, liver, kidney, intestine and other organ of the fish .
The pain video induced greater activation in the right posterior insular cortex, a region implicated in viscerosensory
processing, and in the superior temporal sulcus, a region implicated in the perception of nonverbal social cues.