Tumors with features of T2, including involvement of main bronchus without touching the carina, invasion of visceral pleura
(PL1 or PL2), and association with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis, are classified as T2 if [less than or equal to]5 cm.
The movement of visceral pleura
during inspiration and expiration creates the sinusoidal waveform, which indicates the presence of a pleural effusion.
In normal adult sheep (around 50-80 kg) the visceral pleura
was observed moving approximately 3 mm in a vertical plane during respiration.
Since KS tends to involve only the visceral pleura
, closed pleural biopsy is often non-diagnostic and the diagnosis requires thoracoscopy with the characteristic multiple cherry-red to purple appearance of the KS lesions on the visceral pleura
Cysts in pleural fissures were indeed attached by a thin pedicle to the visceral pleura
Pathology revealed metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma consistent with ovarian cancer involving the diaphragm, liver, and visceral pleura
. She was offered adjuvant therapy as well as surveillance.
Tension pneumothorax occurs when an increasing amount of air accumulates between the parietal and visceral pleura
, collapsing the ipsilateral lung and displacing the mediastinum.
PS's are divided into two subgroups; intralobar sequestration (ILS), which is situated within normal lung parenchyma; and extralobar sequestration (ELS), which is separated from the normal lung and has its own visceral pleura
. Pulmonary sequestration is usually seen in the left lower lobe.
Dendritic cells with antigen presenting capability reside in airway epithelium, lung parenchyma and visceral pleura
. J Exp Med 1986;163: 436-451
The lungs are lined by the visceral pleura
, which at the level of the hilum folds back upon itself to form the parietal pleura, with the cavity between these two layers being defined as pleural space.
The visceral pleura
envelopes all surfaces of the lungs.
EPP is a radical surgical procedure involving complete removal of the ipsilateral lung along with the parietal and visceral pleura
, pericardium with portions of the phrenic nerve, and the majority of the hemidiaphragm (10).