Arthur et al first reported the link between BK viruria
and hemorrhagic cystitis, noting that BK viruria
frequently preceded the onset of hematuria.
BK virus (BKV) urine protocols and DNA extraction methods for quantitative detection of BK viruria
in kidney transplant patients Comparative study of seven 2014 Bali et al.
The incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis and BK viruria
in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients according to intensity of the conditioning regimen.
Subsequent postoperative course was also complicated by BK viruria
, which resolved following reduction of IS dosage.
Pregnant women who were Zika virus positive by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) (6) were monitored by a multidisciplinary medical team at the Crianca e Maternidade Teaching Hospital in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, and viruria
levels in urine were measured until delivery.
Evaluation of different urine protocols and DNA extraction methods for quantitative detection of BK viruria
in kidney transplant patients.
Reactivation and replication occur in immunocompromised patients such as transplant recipients, resulting in viruria
. When replication is aggressive, BKV viremia emerges due to injured renal epithelial cells.
The significance of renal C4d staining in patients with BK viruria
, viremia, and nephropathy.
Median time for occurrence of viruria
was 6.1 months and median time for occurrence of viremia was 4.9 months.
While there has been an increased recognition of the BK virus among the transplant community, and varying algorithms have been designed to alter immunosuppressant medications in an attempt to decrease the rates of BK viruria
and viremia, there has been limited progress in reducing renal graft loss from BK virus associated nephropathy (Kuypers, 2012).
Approximately 30%, 11-13%, and 8% of kidney transplant recipients develop BK viruria
, viremia, and BK virus associated nephropathy (BKVAN), respectively [1-3].
Asymptomatic carriage of adenovirus is common in HIV- infected persons ; asymptomatic viruria
occurs in up to 20% of persons with HIV/AIDS ; and asymptomatic adenoviremia has been reported in children who are HIV- seropositive .