On the importance of the Golden Rule, see Domenec Mele, "Integrating Personalism into Virtue-Based
Business Ethics: The Personalist and the Common Good Principles," Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2009): 227-44.
moral cognitivism holds that at least some of the value of some art consists in conveying knowledge about the nature of virtue and vice.
Many theologians have used a virtue-based
method to answer the challenge put forward in the decree on priestly training (Optatam totius) at the Second Vatican Council that moral theology should "be nourished more on the teaching of the Bible" and "shed light on the loftiness of the calling of the faithful in Christ" (16).
More persuasive is the discussion of the "massive decline of confessional practice" in recent years, a decline that Cornwell reads in terms of lay resistance to the church's focus on sexual sins, for example, and also as a desire for a more communal and virtue-based
faith, as opposed to a sin-based one (209).
ethical theory presents itself as the next logical alternative because it provides a basis for an internalized system for individuals' ethical reasoning.
Another challenge with virtue-based
ethical systems is the question of what the "right" sort of character a person should have.
Local gays who have physiological and psychological issues should be treated appropriately so that they can become good citizens and reintegrate in society while non-Kuwaiti gays should be deported promptly, particularly that our virtue-based
society has zero tolerance for them," Al Azimi who heads a national commission to resist "negative phenomena", said.
In Bounding Thinking, Morton emphasizes how our virtue-based
vocabulary and evaluation practices recognize, engage, and work with our cognitive limitations.
Despite the need for greater development of hands-on application of aretism for practitioners, the book broadens educators' perspectives and provides another avenue for the incorporation of virtue-based
13) In her book entitled Ethics: Humans and Other Animals, Hurst-house illustrates how virtue-based
arguments can be used to oppose certain ways of treating animals such as using animals for scientific experiments and fox-hunting for sport.
Morgan presents us with a fresh and new virtue-based
positive paradigm for conflict resolution.
definition of love would also support integrative work that seeks to pull together the threads of Positive Psychology research into a whole.