Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
1. hepatitis caused by any one of at least seven immunologically unrelated viruses: hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, hepatitis E virus, hepatitis F virus, hepatitis G virus;
2. hepatitis caused by a viral infection, including that by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.
Synonym(s): virus hepatitis
viral hepatitis (VH)
a viral inflammatory disease of the liver caused by one of the hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, delta, E, F, G, or H. All have chronic forms except hepatitis A. The disease is transmitted sexually and through blood transfusions and is common among people with behavior risks or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Speed of onset and probable course of the illness vary with the kind and strain of virus, but the characteristics of the disease and its treatment are the same. See also hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D.
observations Diagnosis is made through antibody (A + C) or antigen (B + D). Characteristic of viral hepatitis are anorexia, malaise, headache, pain over the liver, fever, jaundice, clay-colored stools, dark urine, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. Laboratory analyses reveal increased amounts of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin and an abnormal coagulation of the blood. Severe infection, especially with hepatitis B virus, may be prolonged and result in tissue destruction, cirrhosis, and chronic hepatitis or in hepatic coma and death.
interventions Treatment is with alpha-interferon. Depending on the specific type of hepatitis, treatment with alpha-interferon is effective in 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Improvement in liver function has been noted in 50% of the patients infected. Treatment is also largely supportive. It includes bed rest; isolation, if necessary; fluids; a low-fat, high-protein, high-calorie diet; special skin care if pruritus is present; emotional support; vitamins B12, K, and C; and monitoring of liver and kidney function. Sedatives, analgesics, antiemetics, and steroids may be ordered. However, the patient is carefully observed for adverse reaction to medication because the liver may not be able to break down and detoxify the drugs. Decrease in the amount or frequency of administration or change of the medication may be necessary.
nursing considerations The person is taught the importance of rest and avoiding fatigue, washing the hands carefully after urinating or defecating to avoid spreading the virus, eating well, following written dietary instructions after discharge, and avoiding alcohol, usually for at least 1 year. The patient is encouraged to have certain blood tests performed periodically, including AST and serum bilirubin, to report any symptoms of recurrence immediately, and to avoid contact with people having infections. The person is told not to donate blood and not to take over-the-counter drugs without medical consultation.
viral hepatitisGI disease Liver inflammation caused by viruses–eg, hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F, GB, and other viruses. See Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis delta, Hepatitis E.
vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis(vī'răl hep'ă-tī'tis)
1. Liver disorder caused or exacerbated by any one of at least seven immunologically unrelated viruses: hepatitis A-E and G, and the TT virus (TTV); the existence of hepatitis F virus remains putative.
2. Hepatitis caused by a viral infection, including infection by Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and other herpesviruses.
n an inflammatory condition of the liver, caused by the hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, delta, E, F, G, or H. It is characterized by a general feeling of ill health, anorexia, a painful sensation near the liver, headache, jaundice, fever, darkened urine, reddish stool samples, vomiting, and nausea; transmitted via blood transfusion or sexual contact. It occurs more frequently in individuals who engage in risky behavior or are infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). Treatment involves supportive measures, plenty of rest, regular regimen of vitamins and minerals, interferon and antiviral medications, and continuous monitoring of functions within the kidneys and liver. If untreated, severe cases may result in destruction of tissue, development of cirrhosis, coma, liver cancer, or possibly death.
vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis(vīrăl hepă-tītis)
Hepatitis caused by various immunologically unrelated viruses: hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, hepatitis E virus, and hepatitis G virus.
vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis, type A(vīrăl hepă-tītis tīp)
A viral disease with a short (15-50 days) incubation period caused by hepatitis A virus, often transmitted by fecal-oral route.
vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis, type B(vīrăl hepă-tītis tīp)
A viral disease with a long incubation period (usually 50-160 days), caused by a hepatitis B virus, usually transmitted by injection of infected blood or blood derivatives or by use of contaminated needles, lancets, or other instruments or by sexual transmission.
Synonym(s): infectious hepatitis, short-incubation hepatitis.
Synonym(s): infectious hepatitis, short-incubation hepatitis.
vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis, type C(vīrăl hepă-tītis tīp)
Principal cause of non-A, non-B posttransfusion hepatitis caused by an RNA virus; high percentage of patients develop chronic liver disease leading to cirrhosis.
vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis, type D(vīrăl hepă-tītis tīp)
Acute or chronic hepatitis caused by a satellite virus, the hepatitis delta virus; chronic type appears to be more severe than other types of viral hepatitis.
pertaining to or caused by a virus.
see equine viral arteritis.
a contagious disease of chickens and turkeys caused by a reovirus and characterized by a high incidence of inapparent infection and some cases of joint swelling and lameness.
final steps in the replication of viruses in which virions are assembled from their separately synthesized components. The final steps of viral maturation prior to release from the cell.
viruses grow only in living cells which in the laboratory are provided by embryonated hen eggs, cell culture, or laboratory animals (rabbits, mice, etc.).
occurs in most species, especially in the newborn. In cattle, rotavirus and coronavirus are the common agents but bovine herpesvirus 1 and others may also be the cause in this age group. In older cattle bovine virus diarrhea (mucosal disease) is the major cause. Some other diseases may have diarrhea as an incidental sign, e.g. rinderpest, bovine malignant catarrhal fever.
equine viral abortion
viral hemorrhagic septicemia
important rhabdoviral infection of rainbow trout. Also causes infection, and sometimes disease, in other salmonids, pike, turbot, Pacific cod and Pacific herring. Acute infection is characterized by hemorrhages and a high mortality. Chronic infection may be inapparent.
see duck hepatitis.
viral interstitial pneumonia
bovine syncytial virus, a common cause of interstitial pneumonia in all age cattle, especially calves.
a receptor binding molecule on the surface of a virus. See also ligand.
viral papular dermatitis
see equine papular dermatitis.
see enzootic pneumonia.
viral pneumonia calf
caused by parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus; infection with Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Pasteurella spp. may also accompany the viral infection.