The viral envelope
encoded by the S gene that represents hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).
Integral Molecular is a research-driven biotechnology company creating a pipeline of therapeutic antibodies against under-exploited membrane protein targets, including GPCRs, ion channels, transporters, and viral envelope
proteins, using its proprietary MPS Discovery Engine.
Antiviral activity exerted by peptides often appears to be a result of a direct effect on the viral envelope
or by interference with different stages of the viral replication cycle (WACHSMAN et al.
Proteins 2 and 3 are likely part of the viral envelope
The viral envelope
fuses with the host cell, allowing the viral genes to enter the host cell and replicate.
While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope
(Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit.
The 17 chapters explore simple and complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates; methods of structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans, applications of these methods for identification of lysosomal storage diseases, and participation in the development of Lyme disease; the role of viral envelope
protein glycosylation in the pathogenesis of influenza A virus; the application of lectin histochemistry in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases; computational approaches for studying carbohydrate-lectin interactions in infection; the pathogenic effects of altered sialylation of specific glycoconjugates in genetic diseases; sialyltransferase regulation of cancer-associated O-glycans; and the history of pectin study, chemistry, and medicinal uses of pectin.
The methods based on viral envelope
protein gp51 such as agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly performed in laboratory diagnosis of BLV.
Modern HIV tests -- tests of the 4th generation, as Wicht calls them -- have one further feature: They can also identify the HIV virus by detecting a protein that is part of the viral envelope
, the p24 antigen.
Cell entry of Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is enabled by glycoproteins residing on the viral envelope
When infecting cells, the viral envelope
interacts with liver-specific receptors, leading to uptake into the cell (i.
To enter the host cells, HIV-1 requires an initial attachment to cells membrane's CD4 receptor, which leads to an interaction between the viral envelope
(gp120) and one of the cellular coreceptors: CCR5 or CXCR4.