A wet lab based study could assist in understanding the role of these molecules in blocking the function of viral envelope
proteins to prevent viral entry.
The viral envelope
encoded by the S gene that represents hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).
Integral Molecular is a research-driven biotechnology company creating a pipeline of therapeutic antibodies against under-exploited membrane protein targets, including GPCRs, ion channels, transporters, and viral envelope
proteins, using its proprietary MPS Discovery Engine.
A mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement might be involved, in which IgG antibodies against viral envelope
proteins resulting from a prior infection bind to virus particles of a subsequent infection.
Antiviral activity exerted by peptides often appears to be a result of a direct effect on the viral envelope
or by interference with different stages of the viral replication cycle (WACHSMAN et al., 2003; JENSSEN et al., 2006).
Under TEM, viral particles with altered structure were observed, suggesting the ocurrence of damage to proteins of the viral envelope
, causing structural destabilization, and an electron-dense layer was also observed around the membrane of cells in which viral particles were found, so that propolis seems to affect both penetration and the viral replication cycle.
The best model predicted by I-TASSER presented good predictive value (C-score = 0.77) that was structurally closely related to several viral envelope
glycoproteins in the PDB database.
We only found 9 B cell epitopes that were present in viral envelope
glycoproteins: 7 from the major surface antigen gp350, the main viral determinant mediating viral attachment to B cells  and 2 from the envelope glycoprotein B (gB), key for the fusion of viral and host cell membranes during viral entry  (Table 3).
Proteins 2 and 3 are likely part of the viral envelope
. One of these, Protein 2, is a 377-aa-long protein that contains a zinc finger domain (Table 1).
The viral envelope
fuses with the host cell, allowing the viral genes to enter the host cell and replicate.
While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope
(Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit.
The 17 chapters explore simple and complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates; methods of structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans, applications of these methods for identification of lysosomal storage diseases, and participation in the development of Lyme disease; the role of viral envelope
protein glycosylation in the pathogenesis of influenza A virus; the application of lectin histochemistry in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases; computational approaches for studying carbohydrate-lectin interactions in infection; the pathogenic effects of altered sialylation of specific glycoconjugates in genetic diseases; sialyltransferase regulation of cancer-associated O-glycans; and the history of pectin study, chemistry, and medicinal uses of pectin.