In the recent years, there has been a shift in the pattern of STIs from bacterial to viral.18,19 In the present study also viral STI
(condyloma-acuminata) was the commonest STI seen in pediatric patients accounting for 27 (40.3%) cases.
The most recent national data, now a decade old, estimated that 19 million new STI cases occur each year, half of them among 15-24-year-olds, and that 65 million Americans overall have at least one viral STI
, most commonly genital herpes.
In 2004, however, genital warts was the most commonly reported viral STI
in New Zealand.
Warts are the most common viral STI
diagnosed in the UK, highest rates of new cases in men, 20-24, and women 16-19.
Unprotected oral sex does present some level of risk for transmission of bacterial and viral STI
as well as HIV (Edwards, 1998a; Edwards, 1998b; Hawkins, 2001).
Most studies post 1990s had reported predominance of genital herpes, as noted in our study.1,10 There has been a constant decline in STU of bacterial origin and rise in viral STI
Most studies post 1990s had reported predominance of genital herpes.1,9 There has been a constant decline in STU of bacterial origin and rise in viral STI
.1,9 Many factors have been responsible for this change.
In our study, amongst the viral STIs
, the commonest was genital herpes followed by genital warts which was comparable with Ray et al.
However, a detectable seminal viral load was not associated with infection with an STI (by bacterial or viral STIs
) but only by infection with the extremely common but asymptomatic herpes-family viruses CMV (cytomegalovirus) and EBV (Epstein-Barr virus).
Poor educational status was found to be associated with viral STIs
(HBV, HCV and HIV), and an important epidemiological factor.
Transmission of common viral STIs
, especially human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and of Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, requires only skin-to-skin or mucosa contact, which can easily occur in the context of lesbian sex.
There was shift in the type of STIs evaluated at the clinic; the initial years show predominance of viral and bacterial STIs whereas in the later years there was sharp rise in fungal STIs followed by viral STIs
. Reduction in bacterial STIs has also been reported at other clinics in India.