Initial immunohistochemical workup demonstrated the tumor cells to be diffusely positive for AE1/AE3; patchy positive for calretinin; and negative for CK7, CK20, CDX2, villin
, CD45, S100, PAX8, and synaptophysin.
Although the individual sensitivities of CDX2 and villin
as markers of the latter tumors are each approximately 50%, their combined sensitivity is in excess of 75%.
28, 29) For the 18 MC cases, staining for MSI markers (MLH1, PMS2, mutS homolog 2 (MSH2), mutS homolog 6 (MSH6), CDH17, SATB2, CDX2, CK7, CK20, TFF3, MUC4, calretinin, P504S, villin
, and synaptophysin were performed.
C and D, Immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 7 and villin
, respectively, is indicative of an upper gastrointestinal tract phenotype (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnifications X40 [A and B]; original magnifications X100 [C and D]).
Benign and malignant ovarian mucinous tumors associated with mature cystic teratomas may show massive mucin secretion, goblet cells, carcinoid-like patterns, pseudomyxoma ovarii and peritonei, and signet ring cells characteristic of a gastrointestinal phenotype, with markers such as CDX2, HepPar-1 and villin
, as well as a cytokeratin 7-negative/ cytokeratin 20-positive profile.
The immunohistochemical panel used to distinguish primary vesical adenocarcinoma from metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma includes cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, 34[beta]E12, thrombomodulin, villin
, CDX-2, and [beta]-catenin.
Both goblet and nongoblet glandular (cardiac-type) epithelial cells within the distal esophagus show immunohistochemical evidence of intestinal differentiation and express CDX2, MUC2, and villin
18-24) For example, metaplastic non-goblet cell columnar epithelium reveals positivity for markers such as CDX-2, DAS-1, villin
, and HepPar1, all of which are also expressed in intestinalized epithelium throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including esophageal IM.
The sample was negative for staining with villin
, TTF-1, CDX2, S100 protein, vimentin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, mammoglobulin, and MUC2.
76) Genetic analysis had initially ruled out a role for the fibronectin, desmin, villin
, and uteroglobin genes.
40) Similar to pCEA, villin
and CD10 also show a canalicular pattern of staining.
A particular subtype of lung adenocarcinoma, not included in the WHO classification, is clearly emerging as a specific entity defined on the basis of its peculiar intestinal phenotype and in particular the expression of the transcription factor cdx-2, variably accompanied by other markers of intestinal differentiation including CK20, villin
, and MUC2.