Complementary instrumental exams, such as nasometry, nasoendoscopy, rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, videofluoroscopy
, and electromyography, were identified in this literature review.
When a detailed examination is performed for the diagnosis of dysphagia by videofluoroscopy
(VFS) or fiberoptic endoscopy, it increases up to 64-78% (29).
Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy
and subjective symptoms.
During the follow up, swallowing was evaluated using videofluoroscopy
and revealed a normal oropharyngeal passage, without any fistulas or additional opaque residue.
quantification of laryngotracheal aspiration outcome in traumatic brain injury-related oropharyngeal dysphagia].
Using objective diagnostic tools such as videofluoroscopy
, another study reported that over half the early stage patients in the study had objective signs of dysphagia without reporting symptoms .
showed moderate pharyngeal and oral dysphagia with aspiration seen on drinking fluids.
Assessing penetration and aspiration: how do videofluoroscopy
and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing compare?
Role of videofluoroscopy
in evaluation of neurologic dysphagia.
Abbreviations NIHSS: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale CT: Computerized tomographic scanning MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging SCI: Science Citation Index CNKI: Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure CSJD: Chinese Scientific Journals Database CBM: Chinese Biomedical Literature Database CT7R: Caiteng 7 Rank WST: Watian Swallowing Test VFSS: Videofluoroscopy
ADL: Activity of Daily Life IFRS: Ichiro Fujishima Rating Scale WALQOL: Swallowing-Related Quality of Life.
: a Multidisciplinary Team Approach, Plural Publishing, San Diego, 2012.