They used video fluoroscopy
to evaluate swallowing.
Presently the gold standard for assessment of velopharyngeal incompetence is "direct visualization" procedures like multi-view video fluoroscopy and nasopahryngoscopy.
In 1969 two new procedures for direct visualization of the velopharyngeal valve were introduced; the multi-view video fluoroscopy (Skolnick) (7,8,9) and nasopharyngoscopy by (Pigott).
Speech language therapy for vent residents has been extensive, including, multiple bedside and in-house video fluoroscopy
swallowing evaluations (and preparation of related individualized diet consistencies), assistive devices ranging from low-tech communication boards to sophisticated laptop computer devices, and an array of tracheostomy "speaking" valves.
These measurements normally take place with concurrent video fluoroscopy
, and the workstation allows precise time alignment between the physiological measurements and video data.