In contrast, in the vestibular organ, Pax2 is still clearly expressed in hair cells at P7, and Sox2 is still expressed in both hair cells and supporting cells.
Mutations in the Pax2 gene result in defects of the auditory and vestibular organs [9, 29].
This illusion conflicts with information from the vestibular organs
, which signal that the body is still.
In addition to the PIVC, projection targets of the vestibular nuclei also include the ventral and posterolateral thalamus, cerebellar nuclei (these also receive direct input from the vestibular organs
), the superior temporal gyrus, the precuneus and inferior parietal lobule, the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the locus coeruleus (Figure) (see Dieterich and Brandt ).
The brain scans revealed differences between the groups in two parts of the brain: an area in the cerebellum where sensory input from the vestibular organs
is processed and in the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for the perception of dizziness.
Some research has shown that there are certain variations in the pattern of venous drainage of the vestibular organs. Mazzoni demonstrated that in a certain percentage of human temporal bones, one or two of the vestibular veins drain through the VPVC rather than serving as tributaries of the inferior cochlear vein.
(4) After they surgically lowered the jugular bulb, the symptoms improved, thus adding credence to the importance of venous drainage of the vestibular organs through the VPVC.
Most of the previous studies in humans have measured the horizontal semicircular canal function after prolonged noise exposure [7-9]; however, several histological studies in animals have provided that the saccule may be more susceptible to noise-related damage compared with other vestibular organs
SLC26A4 is normally found in the cochlea and vestibular organs
of the inner ear as well as in the endolymphatic sac, which is a non-sensory part of the inner ear.
Sensory hair fusion and glycocalyx changes following gentamicin exposure in the guinea pig vestibular organs
. Acta Otolaryngol 1989;107:39-47.
Computerized dynamic posturograhpy (CDP) is an assessment technique for analysing sensory, motor and central damages in vestibular organs