vestibular nuclei


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ves·tib·u·lar nu·cle·i

[TA]
a group of four main nuclei, which are located in the lateral region of the hindbrain beneath the floor of the rhomboid fossa. These nuclei are the inferior vestibular nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus (Schwalbe nucleus), lateral vestibular nucleus (Deiter nucleus), and superior vestibular nucleus (Bechterew nucleus). The inferior nucleus contains a group of large cells, the magnocellular part of inferior vestibular nucleus [TA] or cell group F [TAalt] (pars magnocellularis nuclei vestibularis inferioris [TA]), located caudally in the nucleus. A group of medium-sized neurons is located in lateral portions of the lateral nucleus, the parvocellular part [TA] or cell group I [TAalt] (pars parvocellularis [TA]). These nuclei receive primary fibers of the vestibular nerve, are reciprocally connected with the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum, and project by way of the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei and to the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The lateral vestibular nucleus projects to the ipsilateral ventral horn of the spinal cord by the vestibulospinal tract.
Synonym(s): nuclei vestibulares [TA]

ves·tib·u·lar nu·cle·i

(ves-tib'yū-lăr nū'klē-ī) [TA]
A group of four main nuclei that are located in the lateral region of the hindbrain beneath the floor of the rhomboid fossa. These nuclei are the inferior vestibular nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus (Schwalbe nucleus), lateral vestibular nucleus (Deiter nucleus), and superior vestibular nucleus (Bechterew nucleus). The inferior nucleus contains a group of large cells, the magnocellular part of inferior vestibular nucleus or cell group F (pars magnocellularis nuclei vestibularis inferioris [TA]), located caudally in the nucleus. A group of medium-sized neurons is located in lateral portions of the lateral nucleus, the parvocellular part or cell group I (pars parvocellularis [TA]). These nuclei receive primary fibers of the vestibular nerve, are reciprocally connected with the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum, and project by way of the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei and to the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The lateral vestibular nucleus projects to the ipsilateral ventral horn of the spinal cord by the vestibulospinal tract.
References in periodicals archive ?
Neuronal coding of linear motion in the vestibular nuclei of the alert cat.
Cervical dystonia is thought to be a result of systems-level disorder; therefore, vestibular pathologies may be associated due to proximity of vestibular nuclei and pathways.
Third, betahistine has effects on neuronal excitability and spike generation of neurons in the lateral and medial vestibular nuclei. It has been recently demonstrated that histamine induces an excitatory modulation by depolarizing both spontaneous firing neurons and silent neurons in the rat inferior vestibular nucleus via the histamine H1 and H2 receptors [23].
Of note, dopamine, whose levels are critically reduced in PD, is a fundamental modulator of vestibular nuclei function [21].
Surface electrodes placed on the paravertebral nuchal muscles opposite the impaired vestibular side facilitated the contralateral impaired vestibular nuclei by the crossed spinal vestibular pathway.
This may be due to the connection between cerebellum deep nuclei of fastigial and the vestibular nuclei of the brainstem (Watson et al.; Fitzgerald et al.; Crossman & Neary).
(a) Rightward head impulses in the plane of the horizontal canal (RHHI) induce a correct response in terms of the gain of the VOR; fast eye movements in the contrary direction of the eye after the reflexive eye movement are seen as part of the spontaneous nystagmus and imbalanced vestibular nuclei function in the acute stage.
They connect via the vestibular nerves to vestibular nuclei in the brainstem, attached to the front of the spinal cord.
It has been proposed that the reciprocal connections between brainstem vestibular nuclei and the structures that modulate trigeminal nociceptive inputs may underlie the pathophysiology of VM.
Both vestibular and auditory stimuli are sent to the brain via the eighth cranial nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), and then processed in vestibular nuclei in the brainstem and cerebellum.
(18-20) For instance, the vestibular nuclei occupy a prominent position in the brainstem.
Although the exact mechanisms of action of these drugs are unclear, they act at the level of the neurotransmitters involved in the propagation of impulses from the primary to secondary vestibular neurons and in the maintenance of tone in the vestibular nuclei. The drugs also act on the areas of the nervous system that control vomiting, including the central components that are loosely described as the "emetic centre" and the peripheral components in the gastrointestinal tract.

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