vesicular emphysema

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vesicular emphysema


a pathological accumulation of air in tissues. The air may derive from a skin laceration and be drawn in by the movements of muscles. A discontinuity of the tracheal mucosa is a common cause, either by way of laceration or ulceration. Extension from a pulmonary lesion is also common. The syndrome resulting depends on the location of the air. See also pulmonary emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (below).

acute bovine pulmonary emphysema
alveolar emphysema
see pulmonary emphysema (below).
bullous emphysema
emphysema in which bullae form in areas of lung tissue so that these areas do not contribute to respiration.
conjunctival emphysema
may occur after head trauma which permits escape of air from the paranasal sinuses.
fetal emphysema
see emphysematous/putrescent fetus.
generalized emphysema
widespread distribution of air, including subcutaneous tissues, seen with pneumomediastinum.
hypoplastic emphysema
pulmonary emphysema due to a developmental abnormality, resulting in a reduced number of alveoli, which are abnormally large.
interlobular emphysema
accumulation of air in the septa between lobules of the lungs.
interstitial emphysema
presence of air in the peribronchial and interstitial tissues of the lungs.
intestinal emphysema
a condition marked by accumulation of gas under the tunica serosa of the intestine.
lobar emphysema
emphysema involving less than all the lobes of the affected lung.
mediastinal emphysema
orbital emphysema
may occur after trauma to the head which permits escape of air from the paranasal sinuses; appears as swelling with crepitus under the conjunctiva or periocular skin.
panacinar emphysema, panlobular emphysema
generalized obstructive emphysema affecting all lung segments, with atrophy and dilatation of the alveoli and destruction of the vascular bed.
pulmonary emphysema
distention of the lung caused by overdistention of alveoli and rupture of alveolar walls (alveolar emphysema) and in some cases escape of air into the interstitial spaces (interstitial emphysema). It is a common pathological finding in many diseases of the lung in all species, but also occurs independently, especially in horses, as a principal lesion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a prominent lesion in bovine atypical interstitial pneumonia. It is always secondary to a primary lesion which effectively traps an excessive amount of air in the alveoli. It is characterized clinically by cough, dyspnea, forced expiratory effort and poor work tolerance. A double expiratory effort is a characteristic sign—hence broken wind.
subconjunctival emphysema
occurs with fractures involving the paranasal sinuses.
subcutaneous emphysema
air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues. The characteristic lesion is a soft, mobile swelling which crackles like stiff paper when palpated. There is no pain, nor heat and no ill effects unless the pharyngeal area is sufficiently involved to cause asphyxia.
surgical emphysema
subcutaneous emphysema following operation.
unilateral emphysema
emphysema affecting only one lung, frequently due to congenital defects in circulation.
vesicular emphysema
see panacinar emphysema (above).


1. composed of or relating to small, saclike bodies.
2. pertaining to or made up of vesicles on the skin.

avian vesicular dermatitis
vesicles on the skin of the feet and toes and occasionally on the head, on all birds; caused usually by photosensitization.
vesicular disease
a group of diseases of cloven-footed animals of major importance because of their high infectivity. See foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and vesicular exanthema of swine (below), swine vesicular disease, poisoning by the mushroom amanita.
vesicular emphysema
see alveolar emphysema.
vesicular exanthema of swine
an acute febrile disease caused by a calicivirus, genus Vesivirus. The clinical syndrome is one of vesicular stomatitis, with lesions occurring also on the coronets. The disease only ever appeared in the USA and was eradicated from that country in 1959.
vesicular gland
an accessory sex gland in ruminants, the counterpart of the seminal vesicle in the stallion but glandular instead of cystic. Consists of a much-coiled tube that exits at the seminal colliculus in the urethra.
vesicular murmur, vesicular sounds
the soft, sibilant sounds heard by stethoscopic auscultation over the lung parenchyma. They are caused by air moving in and out of the alveoli and terminal bronchioles and are an expression of normality of the lung tissue. Called also vesicular murmur.
porcine idiopathic vesicular disease
see porcine parvovirus.
vesicular stomatitis (VS)
an infectious disease of horses, cattle and pigs caused by a vesiculovirus transmitted by mosquitoes and biting flies. The clinical syndrome is one of vesicular stomatitis but lesions can occur on the udder and coronets.
Enlarge picture
Ruptured vesicles on the oral mucosa of a calf with vesicular stomatitis infection. By permission from Blowey RW, Weaver AD, Diseases and Disorders of Cattle, Mosby, 1997
swine vesicular disease
see swine vesicular disease.
vesicular vaginitis
see infectious pustular vulvovaginitis.
vesicular venereal disease
see infectious pustular vulvovaginitis.
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