Ten children, many with augmentation cystoplasties or vesicoureteric
reflux, which potentially could have increased absorption over a native bladder, had serum gentamicin levels drawn 30 minutes after instillation and none had measurable levels or changes in creatinine during the study.
However, various complications may occur with short- or long-term use of indwelling stents, which vary from minor side effects such as flank and suprapubic pain, haematuria, dysuria, and frequency, to major complications such as vesicoureteric
reflux, stent migration, encrustation, stent fracture, and urinary infection.
Embryology and anatomy of the vesicoureteric
junction with special reference to the etiology of vesicoureteral reflux.
Structural changes, such as cystic kidneys, renal dysplasia, and vesicoureteric
reflux can either be bilateral or unilateral.
Diversion procedure was needed due to grade 5 vesicoureteric
reflux and no improvement in renal function after catheterization and treatment with the antibiotics.
The ranges in other pathologies were: extra-renal pelvis (18-28mm), vesicoureteric
Over a 19-year period at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, SA, only 21 of 2 159 cases (<1%) of documented urinary tract infections (UTIs) had primary vesicoureteric
reflux (Kala--personal communication).
3%), grade 1-3 vesicoureteric
reflux (VUR) was identified but it spontaneously improved, without the need for treatment.
In literature review it is well documented that duplex system is associated with complications such as hydronephrosis, calculi formation, ureterocele, vesicoureteric
reflux and recurrent infection.
When he was aged 4 years, he underwent bilateral reimplantation of ureters for recurrent urinary tract infections and vesicoureteric
Medical versus surgical treatment in children with severe bilateral vesicoureteric
reflux and bilateral nephropathy a randomised trial.
The presence of vesicoureteric
reflux does not identify a population at risk for renal scarring following a first urinary tract infection.