are traditionally used to treat arthritis, tendonitis and splints in racehorses and the trainer had claimed after the original inquiry that it was a remedy used in the racing industry for over 150 years.
Chemical weapons are categorized by the symptoms they induce as nerve agents, blister or mustard agents (also known as vesicants
), choking agents and asphyxiants.
In addition to measuring sulfur mustard and its degradation products, adducts formed by alkylation of hemoglobin (40), serum albumin (41), and DNA (42) have been identified and considered as potential biomarkers for exposure to this vesicant
. The hemoglobin adducts were measured by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-MS-MS, whereas analysis of the alkylated products of serum albumin involved the binding of 14C-labeled sulfur mustard to the protein and MS analysis of the cysteine adducts (40, 41).
Paederus dermatitis is caused by accidentally crushing the insect against the skin, so releasing coeleomic fluid that contains pederin, a potent vesicant
. This causes an acute irritant-contact dermatitis within 24 hours, which may be associated with bullae or pustulae.
This can result in the extravasation of fluids and tissue damage, especially if vesicant
chemotherapeutic agents are being infused (Freedman & Bosserman, 1993; Wickham, Purl, & Welker, 1992).
A related term, extravasation, is defined as the unplanned administration of a vesicant
solution or medication into surrounding tissue (Intravenous Nurses Society, 1998a,b).
It is a potent vesicant
and causes blisters within 24 hours of skin contact.
We received several letters in response to the January issue's Five-Minute In-Service, "Can You Recognize the Risk Factors for Vesicant
Extravasation?" which was based on information from two articles published in the November 2006 issue of the Oncology Nursing Forum (ONF).
The severity of the injury is related to whether the drug is a vesicant
or irritant and whether the drug binds to DNA.
The FMM also stated that it "did not observe any major key precursors for the synthesis of chemical weapons agents, particularly for nerve agents such as sarin, or vesicants
such as sulphur or nitrogen mustard".
"Both concluded that the evidence strongly suggested exposure to vesicants
, or blister agents, such as the chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard, lewisite or nitrogen mustard," Amnesty said in a statement.
The author has organized the main bulk of the text in thirty-seven chapters devoted to white powders and dusty agents, nerve agents of several different types, sulfur-based vesicants
, nitrogen-based vesicants
, arsenic-based vesicants
, urticants, convulsants, and several other potential weapons.