(5,10,11,12,13) Due to the multifactorial and complex mechanism of CSCR pathophysiology, several treatment options, such as conventional laser (CL) and verteporfin
photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been tried, particularly in the treatment of the chronic type; however, CL was reported to have no significant effect on the final visual acuity or recurrence rate and to have toxic effect on the RPE and photoreceptors.
Ranibizumab versus verteporfin
photodynamic therapy: Two-year results of the ANCHOR study.
A drug called Visudyne (verteporfin
) is injected into a vein in the arm and is absorbed by the new growing blood vessels.
Kaiser et al., "Ranibizumab versus verteporfin
photodynamic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: two-year results of the ANCHOR study," Ophthalmology, vol.
Triner et al., "Tumor-selective proteotoxicity of verteporfin
inhibits colon cancer progression independently of YAP1," Science Signaling, vol.
Cotelle, "Non-photoinduced biological properties of verteporfin
," Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol.
PDT involved intravenously injecting a photosensitising drug called Verteporfin
into the patient's circulation, where it became concentrated in areas of neovascularisation within the macula.
In the period leading up to 2005, intravitreal injection (CPT 67028) of medications slowly became popular as treatment modality for age-related macular degeneration after the Food and Drug Administration approval of verteporfin
. From 2005 to 2009, intravitreal injection volume then increased dramatically due to the approval and use of pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab (Ramulu et al.
This approval is based on the results of the Phase III RADIANCE study, which indicated that treatment with Lucentis provided superior visual acuity gains in people with mCNV compared to verteporfin
Focal laser photocoagulation (LP) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin
have been used to treat CSCR.
, a hydrophobic photosensitizer, forms a soluble aggregate with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB).