vertebral joints


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vertebral joints

[TA]
the syndesmoses, synchondroses, and synovial joints of the vertebral column.
References in periodicals archive ?
When knee flexion from normal standing is small relative to the flexion of ankle, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints, the postural index is small (indicating that the forward inclination of the trunk is relatively large and that the posture is closer to a stooped posture than to a full squat).
Angular motion in the sagittal plane of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints was estimated in two experiments in which a total of 71 untrained participants each performed 100 symmetric bi-manual lifts using a self-selected technique.
Increases in load mass were associated with significant increases in hip and lumbar vertebral flexion at the start of the lift, whereas increases in starting height were associated with significant decreases in flexion of ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints at the start of the lift.
Examination of previous research (e.g., Anderson & Chaffin, 1986; Hagan, Sorhagen, & Harms-Ringdahl, 1995; Nemeth & Ekholm, 1985; Park & Chaffin, 1974; Toussaint et al., 1992) indicates that stooped postures - in which the range of knee flexion from normal standing is small relative to the flexion of ankle, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints - are described by postural indices below about 0.3.
Despite its "small" size, sauropod-like vertebral joints had developed to brace its back bone, and the thigh bone (femur) was straightened for weight-support, Bonnan added.
A consistent coordination between knee, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints during lifting was described through calculation of the relative phase between adjacent joints and found to be exaggerated with increases in load mass.
One aspect of interjoint coordination in manual lifting that has attracted comment is a distal-to-proximal pattern of extension of the knee, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints. A lag between hip and lumbar vertebral extension has been noted during unloaded extension from a stooped position (Floyd and Silver, 1951; Tanii and Masudal 1985) and when lifting (Burgess-Limerick, Abernethy, and Neal, 1992, 1993; Scholz, 1992, 1993a, 1993b).
The average (and standard deviation) of subject mean absolute position of the joints in normal standing was 107 deg (6 deg) at the ankle, 168 deg (5 deg) at the knee, 78 deg (4 deg) at the hip, and 100 deg (4 deg) at the lumbar vertebral joint. At the position where the load is grasped (i.e., at the start of extension), the ankle was dorsiflexed an average of 25 deg from normal standing, the knee was flexed by 92 deg, the hip by 87 deg, and the lumbar vertebral joints were flexed by an average of 45 deg from normal standing position.
The average values across load and subject were 3 deg at the ankle, 6 deg at the knee, and 2 deg at both the hip and lumbar vertebral joints.
The average overall effect of increases in load mass from 2.5 kg to 10.5 kg was to slightly increase the flexion of the knee, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints at the start of extension, although substantial individual differences existed in the response to changes in load, and only the changes at the hip and lumbar vertebral joints were statistically significant.
A consistent distal-to-proximal pattern of coordination between knee, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints was seen in the majority of subjects, although some variability existed in the patterns of interjoint coordination observed.