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 [vĕ-roo´kah] (L.)
1. wart.
2. one of the wartlike elevations on the endocardium in various types of endocarditis. adj., adj ver´rucose, verru´cous.
verruca pla´na a small, smooth, usually skin-colored or light brown, slightly raised wart sometimes occurring in great numbers; seen most often in children.
verruca planta´ris plantar wart.


, pl.


(vĕ-rū'kă, -kē),
A flesh-colored growth characterized by circumscribed hypertrophy of the papillae of the corium, with thickening of the malpighian, granular, and keratin layers of the epidermis, caused by human Papillomavirus; also applied to epidermal verrucous tumors of nonviral etiology.
Synonym(s): verruga, wart


/ver·ru·ca/ (vĕ-roo´kah) pl. verru´cae   [L.]
1. a common wart; a lobulated hyperplastic epidermal lesion with a horny surface, caused by a human papillomavirus, transmitted by contact or autoinoculation, and usually occurring on the dorsa of the hands and fingers.
2. any of various nonviral, wartlike epidermal proliferations.

verruca pla´na  flat wart.
verruca vulga´ris  verruca (1).


n. pl. verru·cae (-kē)
1. Medicine A wart.
2. Biology A wartlike projection, as on the skin of certain amphibians or on the surface of certain pollen grains.


[vəro̅o̅′kə] pl. verrucae
Etymology: L, wart
a benign, viral, warty skin lesion with a rough, papillomatous surface. It is caused by a common contagious papovavirus. Methods of treatment include salicylic acid, cantharidin, electrodesiccation, curette excision, laser excision, and liquid nitrogen. Also called verruca vulgaris, wart. verrucose, verrucous, adj.
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1. Condyloma, see there.
2. Verruca vulgaris, see there.
3. Wart, see there.


, pl. verrucae (vĕr-ū'kă, -kē)
A flesh-colored growth characterized by circumscribed hypertrophy of the papillae of the corium, with thickening of the malpighian, granular, and keratin layers of the epidermis, caused by human papillomavirus; also applied to epidermal verrucous tumors of nonviral etiology.
Compare: verruga peruana
Synonym(s): verruga, wart.


(ver-roo'ka) plural.verrucae [L., wart] Wart.

verruca acuminata

A pointed, reddish, moist wart about the genitals and the anus. It develops near mucocutaneous junctures, forming pointed, tufted, or pedunculated pinkish or purplish projections of varying lengths and consistency. Venereal warts should be treated with topically applied podophyllum resin.
Synonym: condyloma; genital wart; venereal wart

verruca digitata

A form of verruca seen on the face and scalp, possibly serving as a starting point of cutaneous horns. Several filiform projections with horny caps are formed, closely grouped on a comparatively narrow base that in turn may be separated from the skin surface by a slightly contracted neck.

verruca filiformis

A small threadlike growth on the neck and eyelids covered with smooth and apparently normal epidermis.

verruca gyri hippocampi

One of the small wartlike protuberances on the convex surface of the gyrus hippocampi.

verruca plana

A flat or slightly raised wart.

verruca plantaris

Plantar wart.
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verruca vulgaris

The common wart, usually found on the backs of the hands and fingers; however, it may occur on any area of the skin. See: illustration


A WART on any part of the skin.


; viral wart papillomatous/plaque-like contagious skin lesion caused by human papillomavirus infection of epidermal (stratum germinativum) cells; induces increased mitosis of infected cells, hypertrophy of dermal papillae and rete pegs (i.e. villi formation), associated thickening of overlying epidermis with parakeratosis formation; treated topically by physical, chemical or surgical means, causing lysis of virus-infected cells, and virus exposure to/destruction by the host immune system; e.g. by application of 11-50% salicylic acid (e.g. Cuplex, Occlusal, Posalfilin), 0.75% formaldehyde gel (Verucur), 10% glutaraldehyde (e.g. Glutarol), 40-95% silver nitrate (e.g. Avoca) caustic pencil, 15% podophyllum resin (e.g. podophyllum paint BP) (Table 1 and see Table 2 and Table 3)
  • verruca manis hand wart

  • verruca pedis; VP foot wart

  • verruca plantaris plantar wart

Table 1: Summary of types of topical verrucae treatments
Treatment typeExamples
Physical therapiesCryosurgery (e.g. liquid nitrogen)
Electrosurgery (fulguration, electrodesiccation and hyfrecation)
Occlusion therapiesCollodion (± active ingredient, e.g. occlusal)
Strapping (duct tape)
Chemical therapiesCaustics, keratolytics, strong astringents
Alternative therapiesThuja (topical tincture or homeopathic 30C pillules)
Banana skin
Table 2: Caustic agents used in podiatric practice to achieve local tissue destruction
AgentActionSpecial precautionsContraindications
Monochloroacetic acid (crystals or saturated solution) e.g. single VPKeratolytic; hydrolysing agent
Deep penetration
Do not use mask if applying solution
Use a mask if applying crystals
Review in 5-7 days
Neutralize with foot bath ± NaHCO3 or NaCl
Soft-tissue atrophy
Peripheral vascular disease
Sensory neuropathy
Salicylic acid paste (40-70%) e.g. single VP; plantar hard cornKeratolytic; hydrolysing agentMacerates tissues
Review in 7-14 days
May be used in conjunction with monochloroacetic acid crystals
Neutralize with foot bath ± NaHCO3 or NaCl
Soft-tissue atrophy
Peripheral vascular disease
Sensory neuropathy
Pyrogallic acid e.g. single VPKeratolytic; oxidizing agentDeep penetration
Review in 3-5 days
Prolonged caustic action
Do not apply more than 3 times sequentially
Stains skin black/brown
Use with great care: may cause deep tissue breakdown
Soft-tissue atrophy
Peripheral vascular disease
Sensory neuropathy
Trichloroacetic acid (saturated solution; 10% solution) e.g. mosaic VPMild keratolytic
Protein precipitant
Shallow penetration
Neutralize with foot bath ± NaHCO3 or NaCl
Review in 3 weeks
Peripheral vascular disease
Sensory neuropathy
Silver nitrate (70% solution; 75-95% stick) e.g. mosaic VP; as a protective skin application below a maskProtein precipitant
Stains skin black/brown
Maximum effect occurs within 24 hours
Some patients show hypersensitivity to silver nitrate (or experience acute pain)
Neutralize with NaCl foot bath
May be applied in alternate layers with trichloroacetic acid
Peripheral vascular disease
Known sensitivity
Potassium hydroxide (KOH; 85% pellets)Strong keratolyticPotentially deep penetration
Action of KOH stopped by application of 5% acetic acid after macerated coagulum has been removed
Single treatment
Soft-tissue atrophy
Peripheral vascular disease
Sensory neuropathy
Phenol (80% solution or 100% crystal)Protein precipitateAction retarded by flooding with industrial methylated spirit
Skin overspill flooded with glycerine
Review as per postoperative protocol
Peripheral vascular disease (phenol suppresses inflammatory response)

VP, verruca pedis.

Table 3: Factors that should be considered in the use of chemical cauterizing agents to destroy verrucae
Lesion siteSuperficial lesion, non-weight-bearing skin - use liquid caustics
20% salicylic acid in collodion
Trichloroacetic acid, saturated solution (+75% sliver nitrate)
Deeper lesion, weight-bearing skin, good fibrofatty padding - either liquid or solid caustics
Monochloroacetic acid, saturated solution
40-70% salicylic acid ointment
Number and size of lesionsLarge lesions: ointment-based caustics
40-70% salicylic acid ointment Smaller and satellite lesions: caustic solutions
Alternating layers of trichloroacetic acid, saturated solution and 75% silver nitrate
Skin textureSweaty or hyperhidrotic skin
Padding cannot be retained in situ
Fair skin or atopic individuals; atrophic or dry skin
Tend to overreact/undergo tissue breakdown, to applied caustics
CirculationReduced arterial supply (diabetes, atherosclerosis)
Caustics may cause ulceration or predispose to infection as healing response is depressed (use astringents or mild keratolytics)
Impaired venous or lymphatic drainage (oedematous tissues)
Avoid strong caustics (use astringent agents or mild keratolytics)
NeuropathyImpaired pain awareness (as in diabetic neuropathy)
Do not use caustics (use astringents or mild keratolytics)
AvailabilityStrong acids should not be used unless both practitioner and patient are available for emergency appointments
Caustics may not be treatment of choice if patient cannot return weekly for ongoing treatments (consider a 'one-off' treatment, e.g. cryotherapy)
Opt for self-applied milder, topical ongoing treatments, if in patient's best interests
AgeStrong caustics should be avoided in young patients with a low pain threshold
Caustics that require padding to be retained in situ between treatments may be contraindicated in patients who cannot keep foot dry (e.g. swimmers)
Previous treatmentsIt is pointless continuing with a treatment that has already proved to be ineffective, or has caused an adverse reaction
Single treatmentsVerrucae pedis do not often respond to a single treatment, but methods include:
• Cryotherapy (application of liquid nitrogen, optimally every 3 weeks; ice ball must extend beyond lesion edge; contraindicated in patients with peripheral vascular disease)
• Electrosurgery (peripheral tissues must also be removed in order to clear all virally infected cells; requires local anaesthesia; contraindicated in patients with peripheral vascular disease or those with an indwelling pacemaker)
Alternative treatmentsAlternative treatments may be indicated for cases that have not responded to other forms of treatment: many of these therapies have not been tested by formal research
Thuja tincture: painted on lesion once or twice a day
Kalanchoe leaves: fleshy leaves split open and fleshy pulp left in situ on lesion; changed every 24-48 hours
Tea tree oil: painted on lesion daily, and covered
Banana skin: small piece of banana skin cut to size of lesion and strapped in place, pith side against lesion; changed every 24-48 hours


, pl. verrucae (vĕr-ū'kă, -kē)
Flesh-colored growth characterized by circumscribed hypertrophy of papillae of corium, with thickening of malpighian, granular, and keratin epidermal layers, caused by human papillomavirus; also applied to epidermal verrucous tumors of nonviral etiology.
Synonym(s): wart.

verruca (vəroo´kə),

n a benign, viral, warty skin lesion with a rough, papillomatous surface. It is caused by a common contagious papovavirus.
verruca senilis
verruca vulgaris,
n (wart), a common wart of the skin or mucosa.
Enlarge picture
Verruca vulgaris.


pl. verrucae [L.]
1. a wart. See also papilloma, fibropapilloma.
2. one of the wart-like elevations on the endocardium in various types of endocarditis.

verruca plana
flat warts.
References in periodicals archive ?
In our multivariate analysis of cypris antennular morphology, all balanoidean species from coastal hard-bottom communities formed a single cluster, clearly separated from a cluster formed by the balanoidean Balanus spongicola and the non-balanomorphan Verruca stroemia.
They are equally effective as both will kill the top layers of the wart or verruca.
In this case report, a rare case of verruca vulgaris on the tongue is presented along with a brief review of literature.
Few case reports on tattoo related verruca have been reported.
A piece of banana skin large enough t o cover the verruca needs to be cut and placed over it with the furry side touching the skin.
Simulated x-ray treatment led to full or partial remission of warts in children with verruca vulgaris, a limited study has shown.
A: There are 2 types of warts that I commonly see: molluscum contagiosum and verruca vulgaris (common warts).
The most common manifestations of oral HPV infection are the various types of benign warts, which include the squamous papilloma (SP), verruca vulgaris (VV), condyloma acuminatum (CA) and a distinct entity known as focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH).
Covers the following categories Antifungals, Acne remedies, Circulatory aids, Lip care, Scalp treatments, Antiparasitics, Wound care, Anti-itch, Haemorrhoid preparations, Hair loss treatments, Cold sore treatments, Wart & verruca treatments.
DOWN: 1 Escapee 2 Palomino 3 Edit 4 Jealousy 5 Kiss 6 False 8 Overbalance 13 Literate 14 Earthier 15 Twister 18 Scoff 20 Ales 21 Acts QUICKIE ACROSS: 1 Caravan park 8 Mob 9 Ink 11 Inexact 12 Nylon 13 Met 14 Ewe 15 Verruca 17 Cut 19 Land 21 Ogre 23 User 25 Coma 27 Mrs 29 Starlet 31 Ask 34 Fad 36 Stern 37 Set sail 38 Eye 39 Cry 40 Electricity.
Without that essential element it is about as sexy as a verruca.
JP McCue as Flatula and Mike Royce as Verruca with Sean Dodds as Buttons