Fasting the patient for several hours before coelomic ultrasound may be necessary for optimal imaging because an ingesta-filled GIT inhibits the ultrasound waves, especially when using the ventromedian
projection of pygophore narrow but blunt at apex; dorsal conjunctival appendages large tapering gradually upward and thinly narrow at apex spine-like, vesica a little shorter than penial lobes.....................................
No clear synapomorphy is known for Paraphasma, and it is defined by a vague set of diagnostic characters: profemur with anterodorsal carina distinctly raised (especially in female) and ventromedian
carina acute; femora and tibiae of second and third legs with indistinct edges; tegmina short and scale-shaped, bearing distinct and often pointed shoulders; and variegated coloration in shades of yellow or brown (Redtenbacher 1906, Zompro 2004).
In Lymnaea, only three large nerves innervate the pedal sole in each pedal ganglion in addition to the unpaired ventromedian
pedal nerve (Longley, 2008).
forebrain dysgenesis follows early prenatal ethanol exposure in mice.
Descriptive terminology follows Mattoni & Acosta (2005) for the hemispermatophores, Vachon (1974) for the trichobothria, and Francke (1977) for the metasomal carinae, abbreviated as follows: DL: dorsolateral; LIM: lateral inframedian; LSM: lateral supramedian; VSM: ventral submedian; VL: ventrolateral; VM: ventromedian
. We followed Francke (1977) for the pedipalp carinae, abbreviated as follows: DI: dorsal internal; DE: dorsal external; VI: ventral internal; VE: ventral external; D: digital; E: external; V: ventral; VM: ventral median; DM: dorsal marginal; DS: dorsal secondary.
The abdominal cavity was opened through a ventromedian
incision beginning roughly at 1 cm from the external genitalia and extending to the cervical region, followed by two lateral incisions towards the anterior and posterior limbs.
Nasal cavity extending medially, separated from contralateral structure by thin ventromedian
lamina of mesethmoid.
Pygophore (Fig.1C) some what quadrangular, dorso median surface medially deeply concave with a large sclerotized process at inner lateral margin, lateral lobes narrowly truncately produced, ventromedian
surface humped; paramere (Fig.
In this paper I show that a homologous 5-HT-like immunoreactive nerve, the ventromedian
pedal nerve (vpn), controls ciliary beating on the pedal sole in both the lymnaeid snail Lymnaea stagnalis appressa Say (1821) and the planorbid snail Helisoma trivolvis Say (1817).