prefrontal cortex plays an important role in this process.
SD: Standard deviation Table 4: Causes for gender difference in coping strategies Amygdala Increased activity Fusiform area Increases activity Hypothalamus Estrogen leads to sluggish HPA response, i.e., lesser release of cortisol and norepinephrine Hippocampus Estrogen increases neurogenesis so long-lasting memory of stress VMPC Right side activated Hormones Oxytocin and endorphin release Amygdala Decreased activity Fusiform area Decreased activity Hypothalamus Greater HPA and autonomic activity Hippocampus Absence of such effects VMPC Left side activated Hormones Cortisol and norepinephrine VMPC: Ventromedial
prefrontal cortex, HPA: High parasympathetic activity
In neuroimaging studies, participants with PTSD showed decreased prefrontal blood flow, (48,49) and a study that used trauma reminders to provoke symptoms in patients with PTSD reported reduced activation in the ventromedial
Voxel-based correlation demonstrated that the left rostral ventromedial
medulla (RVM) (MNI coordinate: -1, -37, -56; cluster size: 20; r = 0.602) was positively related to the VAS scores [Figure 3].
Previous research had observed three brain regions in decision-making; the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the anterior insula (aI) and the ventromedial
prefrontal cortex (vmPFC).
Only the ventromedial
bulbar reticular formation, originating from the dorsal reticulospinal tract is under cortical control.
This was first illustrated by lesion studies in rodents that indicated that the hypothalamus is crucial in the control of appetite: lesions in the lateral hypothalamus (LH)  resulted in anorexia, and lesions in the ventromedial
hypothalamus (VMH) led to obesity (1).
Contrast enhancement was also seen along the ventral cervical muscles on the left side as well as a focus ventromedial
to the left arch of the Atlas with a diameter of 11 x 8 mm and a clear circular enhancement.
Finally, the "social brain" historically refers to a number of brain structures, some of which, when damaged, may be involved in the impairment of social cognition and behavior (i.e., ventromedial
and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction and superior temporal cortex, insula, and fusiform gyrus) , while others have been found activated in healthy brains when people perform social tasks in a magnetic resonance scanner by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1, 3, 6].
Furthermore, it is well established that injury to brain regions such as the orbital and ventromedial
prefrontal cortex leads to severe alterations in emotional and social behaviour, despite the fact that executive function, perception and language are largely preserved (Malloy, Bihrle, Duffy, & Cimino, 1993; Bechara, Tranel & Damasio, 2000).
Ademas, en el OFC y el cortex prefrontal ventromedial
(VMPFC) se encuentran los nodos mas altos, jerarquicamente hablando, de multiples circuitos subcorticales que median el procesamiento afectivo primario, como el RAGE System, el sistema que media la respuesta, filogeneticamente antigua, de la ira (11, 12), de manera que estas redes parecen contribuir a un grado de inhibicion conductual y de modulacion afectiva unico en el reino animal.
 They found that the concentration of glutamate in the ventromedial
prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia was abnormal, whereas the concentration of GABA in the anterior cingulate cortex decreased, supporting the hypothesis of abnormal glutamate - GABA in the brains of those individuals with schizophrenia.