Supporting this hypothesis, the evaluation of the dopaminergic function in a cohort of chronic back pain patients (CBP) revealed a baseline reduction in the [BP.sub.ND] of DRD2/DRD3 within the ventral striatum
, when compared to controls, and the same change reported in fibromyalgia patients.
Several studies have examined relationships between drugs of abuse, dopamine receptor type, the ventral striatum
, and circadian genes.
We sought to test our dual-process model  which posits that MORE may restructure reward processes by attenuating drug cue reactivity in the ventral striatum
and potentiating prefrontal and striatal responses during positive emotion regulation.
Their analysis showed that, consistent with animal models, alcohol cues reliably elicit neural activation in the ventral striatum
. It also showed that alcohol cues elicit activation in cortical regions involved in decisionmaking, cognitive control, and emotional experience, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the insula.
Major finding: Regardless of outcome when challenged with a risk/reward task, the ventral striatum
in the brains of cannabis-smoking youths did not activate.
The reinforcing properties of habit-causing drugs are associated with the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways such as prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum
and ventral tegmental area.
Lee, "Heterogeneous coding of temporally discounted values in the dorsal and ventral striatum
during intertemporal choice," Neuron, vol.
D1 and D2 dopamine receptor gene expression in the rat striatum: sensitive cRNA probes demonstrate prominent segregation of D1 and D2 mRNAs in distinct neuronal populations of the dorsal and ventral striatum
. J Comp Neurol.
The triadic model (Casey, Jones & Hare 2008; Ernst, Pine & Hardin 2006) posits that during adolescence reward and novelty seeking, in the face of uncertain or potential negative outcome, can be explained by an earlier functional maturation of reward-related circuitry (ventral striatum
and orbitofrontal cortex) compared to harm-avoidant (amygdala) and inhibitory control-related brain circuitry (medial/ventral prefrontal cortex).
Music, as we know, is a potent drug--one that releases dopamine in the ventral striatum
, producing euphoria.
When they were anticipating a reward, the boys with variations in the RASGRF-2 gene had higher activity in the ventral striatum
brain area, linked closely to the VTA and itself involved in dopamine release.
When points were on the line, both adults and adolescents had a boost of brain activity in the ventral striatum
, a region that handles rewards.