Respiration, as measured with pulmonary ventilatory rate (volume per minute), is controlled voluntarily and involuntarily.
Involuntary ventilatory rate is determined by pH-sensing central chemoreceptors of the surface of medlla oblougata and by oxygen- and carbon dioxide-sensing peripheral chemoreceptors, with the impulse transferred to the glossopharyngeal nerve (nervus IX) and the vagus nerve (nerves X).
There was significant difference between ventilatory rate
before and after 24 hours of surfactant administration (pless than 0.
Other clinical manifestations include hoarseness, restlessness, rapid ventilatory rate
, use of accessory muscles of ventilation, intercostal and suprasternal retractions, and nasal flaring.
Levels of CO uptake vary among persons and are a function of air concentration, level of exertion and ventilatory rate
, and duration of exposure.