Caption: FIGURE 2: Venogram
for Case 2 of cephalic arch with long segment stenosis (arrow) (a).
Urgent MR venogram
(MRV)/CTV are required to confirm the diagnosis and exclude both sinoorbital infection and potentially fatal cavernous sinus thrombosis.
In contrast, a triple-phase CT scan and reconstructed venogram
were very useful in both of our cases.
A concise diagnostic algorithm includes risk stratification with subsequent ultrasound and venograms
if indicated .
However, the pre-TIPS portal venogram
showed acute thrombosis of mesenteric varices that were not amendable for intervening with coiling and also showed that the main portal vein was moderately stenotic from prior portal vein thrombosis.
revealed complete occlusion of the left external iliac vein and left common femoral vein for which thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was administered, followed by angiography with stent placement.
To overcome this limitation and since intracutaneously administered contrast agent is simultaneously absorbed by the venous circulation Mitsumori and colleagues, after 3D heavily T2-weighted sequence to depict the severity of lymphedema and a high-resolution fat suppressed 3D spoiled gradient-echo (3DSPGR) sequence after the intracutaneous injection of Gd-based MR contrast to image lymphatic vessels, concluded the examination with an intravenous injection of Gd-based MR contrast to obtain an MR venogram
by repeating the high-resolution 3D SPGR sequence, using the images from the MR venogram
to facilitate the differentiation of superficial veins from enhancing lymphatic vessels during exam interpretation.
Magnetic resonance venogram
demonstrating the absence of common iliac anastomosis to form the left inferior vena cava (LIVC) and the termination of the left renal vein in the left inferior vena cava.
confirmed thrombosis of the axillary-subclavian vein (figure 1 a).
Head CT examination was performed on GE scanners (Milwaukee, WI) without contrast using the following parameters: slice thickness 2.5-5 mm, field of view 220-250 mm, kVp 120, mA 110-320.CT venogram
was performed on GE scanners (Milwaukee, WI) after intravenous contrast administration Ominpque [TM] 350 100mls using the following parameters: slice thickness 2.5-5 mm, field of view 180-250, kVp 120-140, mA 180-220.
The primary end points were as follows: 1) angiographic evidence of restored venous patency at completion venogram
, and 2) duplex findings and clinical outcome at intermediate follow up (1 year).
Once the needle was visualized within the targeted splenic vein, 5-10 mL of Omnipaque 350 was injected and a venogram
performed to confirm access.