According to Shanklin, single umbilical artery is associated with higher incidence of marginal and velamentous
insertion of the umbilical cord and these anomalies have been found in 5.
Once UCEA occurs, corresponding measures should be taken to solve the problem, for example, pregnant women, who are diagnosed as velamentous umbilical cord entry, or combined with vasa previa through CDUS, can choose cesarean delivery.
Thirty-two pregnant women were confirmed with velamentous umbilical cord entry, among which sixteen were at second trimester and sixteen were at third trimester.
Role of color flow Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing velamentous
insertion of the umbilical cord and vasa previa.
type cord insertion to the chorio-amniotic membrane of placenta.
Five entities--umbilical cord entanglement with monoamniotic twins, velamentous
cord insertion, funic presentation, oligohydramnios, and a noncoiled cord--are responsible for almost all cases.
, battle door, furcated insertion were not observed in the present study.
Abnormal cord coiling probably acts synergistically with other factors in causing fetal morbidity and mortality, including thrombophilia, funisitis, meconium cord damage, nuchal cord, and velamentous
Gross pathology present in IUGR group were, smaller size of placenta 12%, presence of extensive infarction 16%, false knots 4%, true knot 2%, Battledore insertion of placenta 6%, velamentous
insertion 2%, and placenta extra chorialis 2%.
On examination of the placenta, Velamentous
cord insertion with partial rupture of a foetal vein with a clot at the ruptured site was observed (Figure 2).
Attachment of umbilical cords to placentas were noted whether central, eccentric or Velamentous
, number of umbilical vessels, true knots, torsion, stricture, hematoma, thrombosis were examined.
Placentas with variations in insertions of umbilical cord like marginal or battledore placentas and velamentous
cord insertions were excluded from study.