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vehicle

 [ve´ĭ-k'l]
2. any medium through which an impulse is propagated.

ve·hi·cle

(vē'hi-kĕl),
1. An excipient or a menstruum; a substance, usually without therapeutic action, used as a medium to give bulk for the administration of medicines.
2. An inanimate substance (for example, food, milk, dust, clothing, instrument) by which or on which an infectious agent passes from an infected to a susceptible host; vehicles consequently act as important sources of infection.
[L. vehiculum, a conveyance, fr. veho, to carry]

vehicle

/ve·hi·cle/ (ve´ĭ-k'l) excipient.

vehicle

(vē′ĭ-kəl)
n.
An inactive substance that is combined with an active medication to facilitate administration.

vehicle

[vē′ikəl]
Etymology: L, vehiculum, conveyance
1 an inert substance with which a medication is mixed to facilitate measurement and administration or application.
2 any fluid or structure in the body that passively conveys a stimulus.
3 any substance, such as food or water, that can serve as a mode of transmission for infectious agents.

vehicle

Epidemiology An inanimate intermediate in the indirect transmission of a pathogen from a reservoir or infected host to a susceptible host; vehicles include foods, clothing, instruments. Cf Vector Pharmacology An inert carrier or excipient for a therapeutic agent–eg, water, alcohol-containing elixirs or a sweetened syrup, which provides bulk or solubilizes a drug, facilitating deglutition. Cf Carrier, Schlepper, Vector.

ve·hi·cle

(vē'i-kĕl)
1. An excipient or a menstruum; a substance, usually without therapeutic action, used as a medium to give bulk for the administration of medicines.
2. An inanimate substance (e.g., food, milk, dust, clothing, instrument) by or on which an infectious agent passes from an infected to a susceptible host.
[L. vehiculum, a conveyance, fr. veho, to carry]

vehicle

an inanimate carrier of an infection from one host to another.

vehicle

non-active part of a medicament, i.e. carrier of active ingredient; may act as an agent in its own right, e.g. 3% salicylic acid in 70% industrial methylated spirit (IMS) is used to treat tinea pedis with hyperhidrosis; both active ingredient (3% salicylic acid) and vehicle (70% IMS) have astringent/antifungal properties (Table 1 and Table 2)
Table 1: Vehicles used to carry active ingredients for topical use in skin conditions
Vehicle typeComment
ApplicationsViscous solutions, emulsions or suspensions for application to the skin or nails
CollodionsClear paints carrying an active ingredient applied to the skin and left to dry to a flexible film (e.g. ichthammol in collodion)
CreamsEmulsions of oil and water generally well absorbed into the skin surface; creams are less greasy and easier to apply than ointments
GelsActive ingredients within a suitable hydrophilic or hydrophobic base; they have a high water content
LotionsA cooling preparation for external application, to the skin, formed as a liquid suspension often in an industrial methylated spirit or alcohol base
A shake lotion contains an insoluble powder in a liquid that must be shaken before use to disperse the powder evenly throughout the liquid medium, e.g. calamine lotion
OintmentsGreasy preparations that are usually insoluble in water; a salve or unguent; a semisolid preparation containing a medicinal agent in a fatty or waxy base, intended for topical application; the greasy base of an ointment (usually formulated from soft paraffin, or a combination of soft and hard paraffin) acts as an occlusive medium and makes it especially suitable for use on dry or anhydrous skin
Water-soluble ointments are based on macrogols and can be washed off
PastesStiff preparations containing a high proportion of fine solids, such as zinc oxide and starch; they are less occlusive than ointments and can be used to protect lichenified, inflamed or excoriated skin (e.g. in eczema)
Dusting powdersFine powders, e.g. talc, applied to apposing skin surfaces; they should not be used on moist or weeping surfaces
Table 2: Topical dusting powders for use on skin
Base agents
Starch, Chalk, Magnesium carbonate, Kaolin, Talc, Zinc oxide, Zinc stearate The base agent should augment the action of the active ingredient
Active ingredients
ExamplesActionIndicated use
Boric acid 5%
Salicylic acid 3-10%
Alum 10% Benzocaine 10%
Calamine
Chlorphensin 1%
Menthol 2%
Phenol 2.5%
Sodium perborate 15%
Sodium poly-metaphosphate 5%
Benzoin 10%
Undecenoic acid 2%
Zinc undecenoate 10%
Active against foetid bacteria
Astringent, antiseptic, antifungal
Strongly astringent and deodorant
Analgesic and antipruritic
Soothing, absorbent
Fungicidal
Fungicidal
Antipruritic and fungicidal
Antiseptic
Astringent
Astringent
Fungicidal
Fungicidal
Bromidrosis
Hyperhidrosis and mild fungal skin infection
Hyperhidrosis and bromidrosis
Irritant skin conditions
Irritant skin conditions
Fungal infections
Fungal infections
Irritant fungal infections
Mild skin infection
Prophylaxis of fungal infection
Hyperhidrosis
Fungal infection
Fungal infection

ve·hi·cle

(vē'i-kĕl)
1. An excipient or a menstruum; a substance, usually without therapeutic action, used as a medium to give bulk for the administration of medicines.
2. An inanimate substance by or on which an infectious agent passes from an infected to a susceptible host.
[L. vehiculum, a conveyance, fr. veho, to carry]

vehicle (vē´hikəl),

n a pharmaceutic ingredient, usually a liquid, employed as a medium for dissolving or dispersing the active drug in a mass suitable for its administration.
Veillonella alcalescens
n 1. an organism of the genus
Veillonella. n 2. a schizomycete that has been found in the flora of the periodontal pocket and, by association, has been implicated in the origin and perpetuation of periodontitis in human beings.

vehicle

1. a transporting agent, especially the component of a medication (prescription) serving as a solvent or to increase the bulk or decrease the concentration of the mixture.
2. any medium through which an impulse is propagated.

cloning vehicle
see cloning vector.
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